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1920's Culture Project: The Red Scare
Transcript of 1920's Culture Project: The Red Scare
Palmer raids were attempts by the US Government to arrest communists and socialists. After WW1, America was afraid communists were trying to turn our democracy into a communist country.
On November 7, 1919 the first series of raids were launched.
Palmer Raids are similar to the Salem Witch trials. Anyone could be accused of being communist and arrested without proof. Many who came to bail the accused out of jail were convicted themselves of being communist.
Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
He was afraid that Communist Russians were trying to overthrow the government. In response, he propelled raids, ordering Feds to gather thousands of US aliens and arrest them without trial.
The 1925 KKK March on Washington D.C.
The march, which took pace in August of 1925, gathered about 60,000 white-robbed men, women, and children. The march was long, lasting more than two hours, and consisted of continuous, shoulder-to-shoulder rows of people walking down Pennsylvania Avenue of Washington D.C.to the White House and The U.S. Capitol.
The Red Scare
By: Symone,Bryden,Vanessa, and Shelby
What Was the KKK?
The KKK was a white supremacist group that was willing to use violence and terror to silence their foes. The Second KKK came about in the early and mid 1920s. They were best known for their acts of terrorism against immigrants, communism, and non-whites.
The march took place because members of the KKK wanted to display their growing number of members across the nation, and they all wanted to express their feeling of hatred towards non-Americans and Communism.
Relation to the Red Scare
The march was a part of the Red Scare because after what happened in WW1, many Americans where terrified of the threat of communism, and extremists like the KKK definitely weren't going to sit around idly while America was overrun by anti-American strangers.
What Was The Red Scare?
Steel Mill Strike
The Steel Strike of 1919 was an attempt by the weakened Amalgamated
Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers (the AA) to organize the United
States steel industry at the start of World War I. The strike began on
September 21, 1919, and ended on January 8, 1920. The AA had formed in
1876. It was a union of skilled iron and steel workers which was committed
to craft unionism. However, technological advances had slashed the number
of skilled workers in both industries. With the rise of anti-communist
efforts across the US, the fear of communism within the industry drove many
workers against their labor, resulting in this strike.
Boston Police Strike
This was the attempt of the Boston police officers to receive recognition
of their poor wages and working conditions. The police commissioner was the
man outrun in the workers requests. Police Commissioner Edwin Upton Curtis
denied that police officers had any right to form a union, much less one
affiliated with a larger organization like the American Federation of Labor
(AFL). Workers took his attitude towards current conditions as a part
within communism, and created the labor union against him.
Boston Police Strike Cont.
reconciliation between the Commissioner and the police officers,
particularly on the part of Boston's Mayor Andrew James Peters, failed.
During the strike, Boston experienced several nights of free crime without
police on patrol. Although there was no law within this period, property
damage was not extensive. Several thousand members of the State Guard,
supported by volunteers, restored order.
The coal strike started I n the Fall of 1919, when more than 10,000
Oklahoma coal miners went on strike for higher wages and shorter hours. The
striking miners in Oklahoma, mainly in the southeastern section of the
state, were part of a nationwide coal strike involving more than 400,000
miners. Despite there being no actual proof, the workers threatened the
governor of Oklahoma with communist crimes. The workers stopped almost all
coal production resulting in severe economical problems, along with a lack
of heat for that winter. With this state of the season and the demand, the
coal miners were able to bargain for the wages they demanded and other
reinforcements of their job.
Sacco and Vanzetti Trials
Sacco and Vanzetti were both Italian-born anarchists that were convicted of murdering two men during their robbery of a shoe factory. They both were tried for robbery and murder. Due to the witnesses’ imperfect English and confusing translations,the message was unclear and unconvincing. Their first punishment was twelve to fifteen years in prison. They were tried again but because of their anarchist views. Murder, with the known fact that they were anarchist, was a crime punishable by death. Sacco and Vanzetti were sentenced to execution (August 23rd, 1927) due to the lack of new evidence.
Sacco and Vanzetti Trials Cont.
Their crimes before their anarchist thoughts were known were short term. After they were known, they were punished by death. Their political thoughts brought fear to the people and government. The thought of two anarchists roaming the country and spreading their thoughts were unbearable. They then decided to stop possible threats with the two men.
The Red Scare was a nation-wide fear of Bolshevism and anarchism. The height of the scare was from 1919-1920 because of the political shifts that were being made and the rumored spread of communism and anarchism. Many people in America were made paranoid by this fear, but some did more than others to stop the spread of Communist and anarchist ideals across the nation.