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History of Gender in Brazil
Transcript of History of Gender in Brazil
*The first feminist movement focused on human rights movements
*In the 80s and 90s, movements mainly focused on violence against women, with particular attention to domestic violence and sexual abuse/harassment
*Women's movements also encouraged the development of reproductive health rights in 1994 Women in the Workforce
Today *Participation increases with education
*Large wage gap between men and women- but varies by region
Women earn 77.8% of men's wages in Rio de Janeiro
Women earn 73.6% of men's wages in Sao Paulo
In the Northeast, women only earn 63.5% of men's wages
Wage differentials do not reflect differences in education or experience, but instead are attributed to discriminatory practices Women in the Workforce References
expected to demonstrate masculinity and power
Job was to serve and remain faithful to husbands
remain a virgin until marriage Household Roles: In 1900, women were granted access to schools and employment and in 1933 were granted national suffrage. However, family affairs were not equal between men and women.
Men: automatically heads of household
Women: legally subordinate to their husbands
***Divorce was made legal in 1977 *In the 70s and 80s women's participation in the labor force grew dramatically
*Economic participation of women in Brazil:
18% in 1970
27% in 1980
30% in 1990
*Increases were due to expansion of the services sector and increasing financial demand on families
*Women initially most commonly employed as domestic servants
70% of women in labor force employed by services sector (opposed to 42% of men)
Few women in positions of power http://www.photius.com/countries/brazil/society/brazil_society_gender.html