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What happening to FROGS?

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kalee bunning

on 23 July 2013

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Transcript of What happening to FROGS?

Whats
happening
to the
frogs

gopher frog
drake.marin.k12.ca.us
Panamanian golden frog
steptolife.blogspot.com
corroboree frog
www.abc.net.au
Mountain yellow-legged frog
www.californiaherps.com
Leopard frog
www.trondson.com
Chytrid
Fungus

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/frogs-the-thin-green-line/interactive-map-frogs-around-the-world/4856/
Frog
Deformation

Reproductive
Abnormalities

Habitat
Loss

Lives in central eastern Madagascar
Habitat is pandanus forest
status is critically endangered
Lives in Australia
Habitat is sub alpine woods however, breeding occurs in moist environments
status is critically endangered
The Chytrid fungus is killing over 200
species of frogs the Golden frog is the leading victim as well as the Corrobree frog. This fungus causes a disease called Chytriodiomycosis, a lethal skin disease. Frogs used to be immune to the fungus because it was a local disease they were use to but, because of global trade the fungus was able to mix with other Chytrid fungus making a new deadly fungus that frogs were not immune to.
www.earthtimes.org/conservation/fungus-killed-frogs/1606/
www.arkive.org/corrboree-frog/pseudophryne-corboree/
www.arkive.org/golden-frog/mantella-aurantiaca/
The Chytrid fungus kills frogs by changing their electrolyte (sodium and potassium) balance that is needed for normal cell and organ function in frogs. Electrolytes pass through frogs skin but, because of the fungus they could not pass through as easily. Samples from frogs show the potassium and sodium levels are 50% percent lower in diseased frogs.
www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/53226.aspx
Signs frogs may be infected:
discolored skin
abnormal sloughing of skin
lethargy
failure to seek shelter
abnormal posture
lives in north America
habitats are aquatic such as marshes ponds lakes rivers and streams
status is critically endangered
animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/northern-leopard-frog/
www.marshall.edu/herp/toads_frogs/leopard_frog.htm
www.arkive.org/ramsey-canyon-leopard-frog/lithobates-subaquavocalis/image-g42686.html
www.umesc.usgs.gov
Frogs have showed up with extra legs missing legs and even no legs at all. 20% to 30 % of frogs in local communities have these limb deformities. They have been documented in 52 different amphibian species including the leopard frog (as seen above).
Trematodes are one of the causes of these deformations. During the trematodes life cycle the trematode larvae needs a host that is usually the frog. In some cases the trematode turns into a cysts messing with the frogs metamorphosis. When the cysts develops in tissue in the leg it can cause missing or duplication of legs
Farm runoff is also a problem. During a lab experiment a group split tadpoles into two groups. One group was exposed to pesticides used in north America such as Atrazine that is usually included in farm runoff and the other group was not exposed to any chemicals. When cysts were counted later on the tadpoles exposed to chemicals had much higher levels.
news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/07/0709_020709_deformedfrogs_2.html
news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/07/0709_020709_deformedfrogs.html
news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/07/0709_020709_deformedfrogs.html
lives in California and Nevada
habitat is cold shaded river streams and lakes
status is endangered
http://www.mylfrog.info/naturalhistory/distribution.html
http://www.arkive.org/mountain-yellow-legged-frog/rana-muscosa/image-G32769.html
http://www.arkive.org/mountain-yellow-legged-frog/rana-muscosa/image-G32769.html
Frog reproductive abnormalities can be linked to something called atrazine.
Atrazine has been know to make tadpoles become hermaphroditic in laboratory test.
"If you take five grains of salt, divide this weight by five thousand, that is the amount of atrazine that causes these abnormalities," Tyrone Hayes April 16 2002
Frogs exposed to atrazine had many effects on frogs including the male voice box of a frog to shrink like a female frogs voice box.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/04/0416_020416_TVfrog_2.html
About 80 million pounds of atrazine is used in the United States alone.
http://caledonianmercury.com/2010/03/02/weird-science-quake-days-manure-tea-hermaphrodite-frogs-a-hellish-number/0029358
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/04/0416-020416-TVfrogs-2html
Lives in southern America
Habitat is upland long leaf pine with sand hills
Status is threatened
http://srelherp.uga.edu/anurans/rancap.htm
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/58564/0
http://www.arkive.org/gopher-frog/lithobates-capito/
Climate
change

Boreal chorus frog
www.naturenorth.com
lives in Minnesota
habitat is wetlands near trees
status is threatened
http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/reptiles_amphibians/frogs_toads/treefrogs/chorus.html
http://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/explorer/species.cfm?id=10852
Pollution
www.123rf.com
Common frog
lives in Britain and Ireland Europe Italy Portugal Spain and Greece
it has a wide range of habitats
status is least concern
http://www.arkive.org/common-frog/rana-temporaria/
Pet trade
Tomato frog
www.cites.org
lives in Madagascar
habitat is swamps and slow moving water
status is near threatened
http://www.arkive.org/tomato-frog/dyscophus-antongilii/
Invasive
species

www.fieldherpforum.com
California red legged frog
lives in western America
habitat is slow moving or standing deep ponds
status is threatened
http://hcp.stanford.edu/frog.html
http://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Wildlife-Library/Amphibians-Reptiles-and-Fish/California-Red-Legged-Frog.aspx
http://www.sierraforestlegacy.org/FC_SierraNevadaWildlifeRisk/CaliforniaRed-leggedfrog.php
Cowans Mantella
www.bukisa.com
Lehamanns Poison frog
www.flickr.com
Frogs Near Extinction
kihansi spray toad
news.mongabay.com
table mountain ghost frog
thestickytongue.org
Table Mountain Ghost Frog
Frogs Large Population Decline
Interior Robber frog
www.arkive.org
www.arkive.org
The Kihansi Spray Toad weighs only a few grams and grows to only be about 1 to 1.5 inches long. When this frog was first found it was living in a very small space. It only lived in five acres of land in Kihansi Gorge. This toad and many other species such as the toads prey life's depended on the mists created by the waterfalls. In 1999 a hydro electric dam was built that generated one-fourth of Tanzania's electrical supply. The dam decreased the flow of the waterfalls by 90% also decreasing the mists that the toads needed to survive. The toads population soon started to decline. In 2009 the last Kihansi Spray Toad was seen in the wild. It then was declared extinct in the wild. Luckily not all hope was lost for this toad, Bronx zoo officials collected 499 Kihansi Spray Toads and brought them back to the U.S and started a new conservation program. The frogs micro habitat was able to be replicated with all the conditions that the toad needed to survive. Thanks to the Bronx zoo and later on Toledo zoo habitats made breeding of the Kihansi Spray Toad successful and 2000 more of these toads have been reintroduced into the wild.
spray toad in the Bronx zoo
blogs.thatpetplace.com
www.amphibiancare.com
spray toad toledo zoo
commons.wikipedia.org
es.wikipedia.org
environmentareus.blogspot.com
spray toad in the wild
blog.conservation.org
kihansi gorge's waterfalls are the perfect habitat for the kihansi spray toad
This frog is limited to the interior uplands of eastern Puerto Rico and lives in terrestrial habitats. In 2004 the Interior Robber Frog was listed as critically endangered and still to this day its population is decreasing. It has been threatened by many things. deforestation is one of them. This was due to agricultural expansion. Disturbances like tourism are also a problem. Climate change is one cause that may cause this decline also Chytrid fungus may be a cause. It is unknown why this frogs species is dying but researchers are trying to learn how. Once the population of the frog is found and a disease is noticed a conservation center may be built to help the frog. Right now the frogs live in a well protected reserve in the wild and hopefully the cause of their decline will be found.
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/56725/0
The Table Mountain Ghost Frog lives in mountain streams in south western Africa. They're poor jumpers but because of their webbed feet they're very strong swimmers. They have toe discs that help the frog to cling on rocks near the stream and are able to easily fit in small crevices. Since 1980 the Table Mountain Ghost Frog population has decreased by 50% and is still declining. It is listed as critically endangered. Its main threat is vegetation and the construction of water storage. Dams were constructed at many of the Table Mountain waterways during the beginning of the 20th century. Many of these water ways were home to the Table Mountain Ghost Frogs that had adapted to the fast moving water of the streams not the slow moving water because of dams. Also by building dams this species is threatened by increased numbers of dry years.
http://www.edgeofexistence.org/amphibians/species_info.php?id=561
lives in Columbia
Its habitat is submontane tropical rain forests
it status is critically endangered
http://www.arkive.org/lehmanns-poison-frog/oophaga-lehmanni/
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/55190/0
lives in Madagascar
its habitat is vegetation along streams
status is critically endangered
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/57441/0
Some times animals are shipped to other countries and once they get there they can be set free or escape. Most of the time the animal is able to adapt to the ecosystem and can begin competing with other animals for food they can also spread diseases. Bullfrogs are invasive species. They have spread out to 15 different countries including western north America. They also bring the disease Chytridiomycosis which has already driven 100 species toward extinction. 5,000,000 frogs are imported every year and 62% of these frogs are infected with Chytrid fungus. Though these frogs spread diseases they are still being sold in pet stores and the problem is still going on.
http://www.savethefrogs.com/threats/invasive-species.html
Frogs all around the world are suffering from habitat loss. 18 species of frog are declining due to habitat loss in Australia. Deforestation has led to major declines of the Houston toad in Texas and are now only about 3,000 individuals. When the species looses it habitat and begins to decline rapidly. People don't notice that the loss of the species is only one problem. Other impacts are usually not noticed until the species is almost completely gone from its natural habitat. This is known as "death by a thousand cuts". Loss of populations can also lead to problems such as decrease of genetic diversity that can lead to reduction in species ability to evolve and adapt to changes in their environment such as global warming and diseases.
http://www.savethefrogs.com/threats/habitat-destruction.html
www.fcps.edu
www.savethefrogs.com
www.humanesociety.org
Pollution is also linked to frog abnormalities. Agriculture is one factor that causes pollution and hurts the frog population. It is thought to be again linked to a commonly used herbicide Atrazine. Though the E.P.A says the chemical is safe for use in the United States many environmental groups strongly disagree and want it banned like it is in the European Union and Switzerland where the chemical is made. During a survey 233 frogs reproductive systems were analyzed 13% of these frogs had abnormalities in.
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/08/science/08frog.html
Climate change also has been responsible for decline in frog population. It doesnt have a direct effect on frogs but is making conditions right for something else that is lethal for frogs, a disease called Chytridiomycosis but, scientist now believe that climate change may not be the cause of the spread of this disease. They believe climate change is affecting frogs mainly because frogs are more sensitive to the change than other amphibians. Because of their premeable skin life cycle and unshelled eggs frogs are more vulnerable to climate change and the effects of climate change is more catastrophic.
http://www.amphibiaweb.org/declines/ClimateChange.html
Pet trade is another factor that is killing frogs. This is also linked to the spreading of the Chytrid fungus. Some frogs are not captive breed and are actually caught in the wild. By being caught in the wild they were exposed and could be infected with Chytridiomycosis. When they are bought as pets some times the owner is unable to take care of them and set them free allowing the Chytid fungus to spread to other native frogs.
http://www.savethefrogs.com/actions/pets/index.html
lives in south Africa
Its habitat is forests, streams, gorges and valleys
its status is critically endangered
http://www.edgeofexistence.org/amphibians/species_info.php?id=561
Kalee & Alexandra
Presentation

smithsonianscience.org
fineartamerica.com
news.mongabay.com
www.123rf.com
www.greenretreat.org
www.visualphotos.com
ENDANGERED FROGS
www.ouramazingplanet.com
HAITIAN FROG
LIMOSA HARLEQUIN FROG
COSTA RICAN RETICULATED GLASS FROG
COWANS MANTELLA
bururi long fingered frog
harlequin poison dart frog
CONSERVATION CENTERS
amphibianrescue.org
begginer.worth1000.com
PANAMANIAN
GOLDEN FROG

Remember this frog from the beggining of the presentation
It not only holds the record for being the leading victim effected by Chytridiomycosis but is also the most endangered frogs. This frog is known as good luck in Panama. You would be lucky to see one to because they are VERY rare. They are critically endangered and are thought to be extinct in the wild in some places. These frogs have been wiped out by the Chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis). the Chytrid fungus wiped out nearly 80% of the Panamanian Golden Frog population and what that didnt kill humans did. The Golden Frog is now threatened by over collection for zoos hotels and pet trade, habitat loss and degradation caused by agriculture. This frog is not the only amphibian suffering 1/3 of the 6000 species of amphibians are at risk of going extinct and habitat loss is the main threat. Most threats can be easily stopped but some cannot such as the chytrid fungus.
6th extinction in motion:panamanian golden frog
http://www.marylandzoo.org/animals-conservation/amphibians/panamanian-golden-frog/
anthonyhearsey.deviantart.com
www.flickr.com
ourplanet.infocentral.state.gov
Black eared mantella
Oxapampa poison frog
www.arkive.org
www.arkive.org
la hotte whistling frog
www.conservation.org
The Mount Nimba Reed frog
rediscovered after last seen in 1967
www.arkive.org
The Gastric Brooding frog
last spotted in 1985
www.conservation.org
www.arkive.org
The Hula Painted frog
last seen in 1955
conservation.org
www.arkive.org
The Rio Pescado Stubfoot toad
rediscovered after 15 years of
believed extinction
www.conservation.org
www.cnn.com
Omaniundu Reed frog
rediscovered after last seen in 1979
www.conservation.org
and is now believed to be extinct
the
corroboree
frog

the corroboree frog is Australia's most
endangered frog and a leading victim of the chytridiomycosis. in the last 10 years 80% of the frogs population was lost. the taronga zoo melbourne and healesville zoo are working together to bring back this frog. baby frogs are grown in the wild on location above ground where they are away from the effects of the well know chytrid fungus. in 2010 47 eggs were grown and hatched in 2011 244 more frogs were grown and the latest batch was 819 eggs these new born frogs should be able to overcome the effects of the chytrid fungus. the people hope to see positive effects from the conservation plan and say once they mature they should be able to survive knowing that they have no natural predators because they are toxic if we are lucky this frog can be returned to its environment and be taken off the critically endangered list.
http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/journal/endangered-corroboree-frog-given-second-chance.htm
taronga zoo
www.reptilechannel.com
www.australianalps.environment.gov.au
www.flickr.com
amphibianrescue.org
www.washingtonpost.com
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dezsj45jWcU
the Panamanian golden frog has a very unique mating ritual because its call is very low and it lives near very loud water falls the other frogs cannot hear the frog so to mate the frog waves
(almost)extinct frogs
http://urbantreefrog.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/29-frogs-poster.jpg
http://i1.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_images/590/draft_lens17709149module154631666photo_1319873436Flyer-Save-The-Frogs-Day-
http://c1bluelivingideascom.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/files/2011/11/Save-the-Frogs.jpg
SAVING FROGS
http://www.qldfrogs.asn.au/_dbase_upl/HunchBack.jpg
http://www.exoticpetvet.com/breeds/Lumpy%20White's%201.jpg
http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/internnsf/Images/PCOX-7DD6X9/$File/great-barred-frog-small.jpg
www.sciencebuzz.org
switchboard.nrdc.org
www.indianaenvironmentallaw.com
www.aroshataglia.com
www.pollywogsworldoffrogs.com
cart.frogwatch.org.au
www.savedarwinsfrogs.org
ruahanationalpark.weebly.com
openbuildings.com
iambackpacker.net
content.asce.org
Ranavirus
wikimedia.org
Brown frog
range is western taiwan
habitat is low altitude hill forests and nearby streams
status is endangered
The Ranavirus poses many threats for frogs
mainly because instead of attacking individuals it attacks a whole community.
There are many signs a frog may be affected for tadpoles there bellies turn red and become bloated, there tails become damaged, they become lethargic and loose their appetites and begin to avoid predators and become easy prey. Adult frogs are faced with lethargy emaciation reddening of lower limbs, edema, and loss of fingers or toes.
news.bbc.co.uk
news.bbc.co.uk
www.123rf.com
72
WHO
CARES
DOES IT
MATTER
Full transcript