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Chem. Project: Wine Making

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by

Grace Huynh

on 30 September 2014

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Transcript of Chem. Project: Wine Making

• In the Middle East, ancient Persian fable tells of a princess who ate spoiled grapes and was in an intoxicated state
• exclusive and only nobles and the royalty drank wine
• grape cultivation can be traced back to the "Fertile Crescent"
near the Caspian Sea and Mesopotamia -> Egypt -> Jewish, Arabians, Greeks ~1600 BC -> Europe
• Romans contributed to the art of wine making such as adding more colors, making more varieties of wine etc. ~1000 BC
• wine - alcoholic drink mainly made from fermented grapes or other fruits but can also be made from rice
• winemaking is also known as vinification!
• science of winemaking is called Oenology
• originated from China ~7000-6600 BC
• also originated from the Middle East ~4000-6000 BC
The Art of Winemaking
By: Grace Huynh, Trang Tran, Naomi Pham, Michele Phung
Learning Objectives: SWBAT
Background
Background (cont.)
Ingredients Needed for Winemaking
Chemical Process of Winemaking
Chemistry Behind Winemaking
Acids in Wine
The Taste and Smell of Wine
Benefits of Wine
Students will be able to understand the process of making wine, the chemistry components involved in winemaking, the health benefits/non benefits of wine, and possible careers in winemaking.
Which civilization contributed to the art of winemaking ~1000 BC?
What main ingredient (fruit)
is needed to make European wine?
What is another word for winemaking?
What is the science of winemaking called?
References
Barr, H. (n.d.). The process of winemaking. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from
http://www.whitman.edu/environmental_studies/WWRB/winemaking.htm
Dharmadhikar, M. (n.d.). Lactic acid bacteria and wine spoilage | midwest
grape and wine industry institute. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www.extension.iastate.edu/wine/lactic-acid-bacteria-and-wine-spoilage
Faire du vin : la vinification. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://
www.morethanorganic.com/making-wine
Frontenac Gris Rosé (2012, April, 19). http://enology.umn.edu/. Retrieved from
Harvard School of Public Health (n.d.). Alcohol: Balancing risks and benefits |
the nutrition source | Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved May 25, 2014, from http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/alcohol-full-story/
Hirst, K. (n.d.). Wine - the origins and history of wine. Retrieved May 24,
2014, from http://archaeology.about.com/od/wterms/qt/wine.htm
The history of wine making. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://
www.madeinsouthitalytoday.com/origin-of-wine-making.php
How do wine making kits work? (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://
www.napa.org/how-do-wine-making-kits-work/
Keller, J. (2010, September 27). Winemaking: Acidity in wines. Retrieved
May 24, 2014, from http://winemaking.jackkeller.net/acid.asp
LaMar, J. (2000, January 11). WINE 101: wine history. Retrieved May 24,
2014, from http://www.winepros.org/wine101/history.htm
Norrie, P. (n.d.) Allergy, Side Effects, and Hangovers. drnorrie.info. Retrieved
from May, 26, 2014, from http://www.drnorrie.info/html/ article_allergysideeffectshangovers.html.
Red Wines vs. White Wines: Which Bottle Should You Pick? / Nutrition /
Healthy Eating. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2014, from http://www.fitday.com/fitness-articles/nutrition/healthy-eating/red-wines-vs-white-wines-which-bottle-should-you-pick.htm
Uva, E. (2013, December 2). The chemistry of wine making. Retrieved May
24, 2014, from http://www.emsb.qc.ca/laurenhill/science/wine.html
Winemaking ingredients: wine making guides. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24,
2014, from http://www.wine-making-guides.com/wine_ingredients.html
All pictures found on Google.
Different Styles of Wine
For Homemade Wine
-Fruit (Ex. Grapes) for the flavor
-Sugar (Regular house sugar)
-Yeast, Yeast Nutrient, and Yeast Energizer for good fermentation
-Acid (Ex. Tartartic, Malic, and Citric) for characteristic flavor
-Grape Tannin
-Pectin Enzymes break down substances present in fruit
-Campden Tablets get rid of undesireable yeast and other types of bacteria








Step 1: Juice from the fruit must be extracted
Step 2: Juice must be fermented with acids, sugars, nutrients, and yeast; then, wait 10 or more days
Step 3: After 10+ days, strain fruit and let ferment some more; liquid should bubble for several weeks
Step 4: After bubbling stops, the aging process begins
Step 5: The wine is then separated from dead yeast cells and other precipitates. It is then chilled and bottled, ready to drink.
Note: Some wines can be drunk right after fermentation. However some need to be matured in oak barrels for 3 to 4 years.
POP QUIZ!
Important Notes
W
I
POP QUIZ!
N
E
M
Gases in Wine
A
K
Jobs in the Wining Industry
I
N
G
Chemical Equation:
C6H12O6(sugar or glucose)+ yeast 2C6H12O6(ethanol)+ CO2
When yeast is added, it reacts with the sugars in the grapes' juice and produces ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Thanks for watching!
We hope you learned something new!
Song: Flower Dance
Artist: DJ Okawari
Rosé wine - still wine made by exposing the skins of red grapes to the grapes' juices (not by roses)
Vintner
- the winemaker
Vineyard Owner
- prepare the soil and grow vineyards
Tasting room host
- are responsible for selling their wines from the vineyard they work for
Wine shop Owner
- have or own a shop and sell wine products
Wine Tour Guide
- spread the word about wines
Cooper
- person who constructs wooden barrels to store wine in
Argon
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
Sulfur Dioxide
Consequences of Drinking Too Much Wine
Drinking wine in moderation has some health
benefits; however, drinking too much wine has
negative effects on one's health.
Having 2+ drinks a day increases the chance of developing breast cancer by as much as 41%
Developing an addiction to alcohol pays its price: one in three cases of violent crimes are influenced by it!
Caution: wines pack in a lot of sugar. This can be
detrimental to health.
If consumed during pregnancy, alcohol can harm the baby
Can cloud one's judgement
Causes headaches, nausea, vomitting, etc. (hangover)
Q: Why exactly does wine have such a sour taste?
A: Because of ACIDS!! It has a pH approx. 3
The most common acids found in wines are tartaric, malic, and citric acids. Recall: bases constitute a rather bitter taste, whereas acids are better known for their tartness. The acids natural in wine as well as the ones formed during fermentation all influence the overall tangy taste! :)

Q: What else do they do?
Actually, acids can either make or break a wine. While most of the time, acids are well known for their ability to prevent micro-organism growth (which spoils wine), lactic acid bacteria, which produces lactic acid, can damage the wine. Able to grow under low oxygen conditions, they can be found
throughout
the wine and create several other compounds that may lead to spoilage!
Red Wine vs White Wine
Red Wine
White Wine
usually made from white grapes (which don't have skins or seeds)



drinking white wine can improve heart health AND prevent heart diseases!




White wines assist in lung health
red wines are made WITH the skins of grapes
flavonoids--lower the risks of cancer
their skins provide a type of antioxidant called resveratrols, which protect blood vessels and can get rid of blood clots
they also stop enzymes that generally stimulate cancer cell growth and slow down immune responses
polyphenols--reduce blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and attack harmful bacteria
wines ease stress levels :)
(they have a calming effect)


Most wines are made from grapes or apples. Whether these are skinless or not greatly impacts the outcome; usually, wines made from skinless grapes have a much lighter and fruity taste. Wines made from whole grapes are much richer in taste with a "spicy" kick to them!
Name all the different styles of wine?
Why does wine have a sour taste?
What does the vintner and cooper do?
What are the benefits in drinking wine? Negative effects?
What kind of taste will wine have if they are made with
skinless grapes? Whole grapes?
All of these gases add the fizz into the wine
and make them sparkle! ~~~~
Overall, winemaking can be a difficult task in which harvesting the grapes or other fruits undergo a long process called fermentation. Due to the acids and gases in the wine, wine usually has a sour and fizzy taste. There are negative effects in drinking wine. However, wine does have several benefits in which it can alleviate some conditions, for instance, cancer and heart disease. There are also many different types of jobs in the wine industry, such as being a cooper or a wine shop owner.
Puckette, Madeline. (2012, December 12). The Many Different Types of Wine. Winefolly.com. Retrieved May 28, 2014, from http://www.winefolly.com
Check for Understanding
Wines can have a floral, citrus, or fruity taste depending on the fruit/grapes used
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (remember him from the gas laws lesson?) actually figured out the chemical equation of how glucose found in the fruit (in wine) can be converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide
Chemical Equation:
C6H12O6 -->2 CO2+ 2C2H5OH
Louis Pasteur (recall 9th grade Biology) discovered that yeast was accountable for the making of glucose to alcohol. In short, add yeast to any uncomplex sugar and you've got yourself some alcohol!
Tartaric and malic acids add a sour taste to wine while
citric acid adds a sweet taste.
To sum it up, drink in moderation!
CHEERS!
Check for Understanding
Who discovered the chemical equation for converting glucose to alcohol and carbon dioxide?
Name all three acids found in wine?
Name at least 3 ingredients needed to make wine.
vinification
oenology
the Romans
grapes
fruit, sugar, yeast, acid, grape tannin, pectin
enzymes, campden tablets
rosé, red, white, sparkling, fortified
because of acids
vinter-makes wine, cooper-makes wooden barrels for used for storing wine
with skinless grapes, wine tastes lighter and fruity. with whole grapes, wine tastes richer and a bit spicy
tartic, malic, citric
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
benefits- relieving stress, reducing risk of cancer, etc
negative effects- clouding one's judgement, drinking alot of sugar, etc
Table
Wines
How Wine is Made
Inert (noble) gases are used in wine because
they are nonreactive.
A wine's flavor and aroma depends on its components!
Fortified wine - making wine "stronger" using spirits, which are distilled alcoholic beverages
Sparkling wine (e.g. champagne) - involves secondary fermentation which results in bubbles
White wine - still wine made from white grapes (can be black grapes)
Red wine - still wine made with black grapes
Video posted by: Ian Collier
Wine exposure to oxygen gas gives the wine a more sour taste.
Full transcript