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Turkish Textile Industry
Transcript of Turkish Textile Industry
Industry -from concept to consumer- High quantity & low cost Highlights the Center of Fashion CHANGES CAUSED BY COMMUNICATIONS, LEISURE, AND INDUSTRY The desire for fashion increased due to availability and advertising such as mail service, magazines, newspapers, telephones, automobiles Changes in the Textile Industry Then Working Conditions Manufacturing
Process Arrival of Cotton Finishing Quality Control Thank you
for listening! GROUP NAMES Uses and invests in modern technology, allowing for the production of highly value added and fashionable products
o 1990-2009: Turkey ranked second globally in investments in large circular knitting Sophisticated textile finishing industry established
Nearly 7500 textile manufacturers (mostly medium sized), with 40,000 textile factories The main export items are synthetic yarns from monofilaments, cotton woven fabrics, knitted fabrics, synthetic filament yarns and woven pile fabrics such as velvet Richness in basic raw materials
Qualified and educated labor force allows for the production of higher quality goods 1920- 1970: Period of industrialization
1980s: Began extensively exporting to foreign markets
Today: exports around $10 Billion in textiles a year, 70% of it ready made clothing
Today the Turkish Clothing industry is 7th largest in the world, amounting to 4% of total global apparel exports New York Outsourcing All merchandise is developed by their in-house product design and development teams based in New York.
The merchandising division determine the amount produced All product produced by independent manufacturers through Ann Taylor’s in-house sourcing group,
Small percentage of merchandise is purchased through branded vendors to complement their in-house assortment
Production management and quality assurance department that establishes technical specification for all merchandise 2011 - Sourced merchandise from approximately 138 manufacturers in 19 countries
No single supplier accounted for more than 10% of the merchandise purchased (manufacturing spread out) History of textile manufacturing in Turkey goes back to the Ottoman Empire
16th-17th Century: textile industry already widespread
Strategic location: in between Europe and Asia, abundant ports
Key player and stop during the Silk Road
The Ottoman Empire was best known for its luxurious and beautiful damasks, velvets and brocades History Today: 935 total stores
Target audience: Affluent career women, business-oriented Ann Taylor A Shift in Sourcing Textiles = 9.3% of exports (1999) Advantages:
-Rich in cotton
-Proximity to Europe Now
Increase in global competition
96% of Ann Taylor sourcing from South East Asia
Mass quantity production advantage Decrease in raw cotton The Result "High-value-added" goods (450,000 tons in 2007/8) Textiles = 5.3% of exports Weaving & Delivery Warping Dyeing Rebeaming Sizing Macroeconomic
Policy As part of a Customs Union with the
EU since 1996, Turkey... Focuses on the niche market of the EU:
Reduced tariffs and lifted quotas between EU states and Turkey.
49% of Turkish textiles are exported to EU states (Germany, Italy, Bulgaria Romania, Poland, etc.).
They are the 2nd largest supplier of textiles after China for the EU.
According to the Turkish Ministry of Economy, Turkish textile exports increased 22% in 2011. Must adhere to stricter standards
of the Lisbon Strategy: Strategy was to “make Europe, by 2010, the most competitive and the most dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world.”
Requires growing a skilled workforce to create “more and better jobs” to attract investment.
Turkish firms must adhere to EU regulations regarding ”maximum hours, minimum annual leave, safety and health requirements, right to union organization and rights when business ownership is transferred” Turkey asked to “Apply all laws and policies, regulation and taxes to the informal sector, which would move to eliminate or at least drastically reduce the informal sector.”
Essentially, all these regulations required much higher operating costs, which caused Turkey international competitiveness to suffer but successfully integrated it into the European economic community. 8th largest textile exporter
4th largest apparel exporter A Shift in Focus Workshops Garment Sector’s Subcontractor Workshops: sewing, knitting/weaving, dyeing, printing, embroidery, cutting, ironing and packaging.
Workshops- edge of city, recent immigrants
Home-based Female Workers- individually or in cooperatives- specific jobs, i.e. gem decoration. Employment: 2 million people Employees Age- <40 years old.
men: higher-skilled, higher-paid positions
women: lower-paid, lower-skilled positions
children: 4.2% of children aged 6-14; 28% of children aged 15–17 employed
Workshop owners said they favored women workers, “who are more submissive.”
Most female workers leave when they get married Who Employment in Textile Industry
2009- 6 million female workers total, 3.6 million unregistered
textile industry- 3/4 of workers unregistered.
no social security
no taxes on income Unregistered Workers Work Day 8:30 - the work starts
10:30 - tea break (15 minutes)
13:00 - (lunch break (1 hour)
16.30 - tea break (15 minutes)
19:00 - the work ends Typical Work Day Environment Registered vs. Unregistered Workshops Registered Unregistered example: Dyeing Workshops
brand-approved equipment, sanitation, wages
quality control at every stage
Pros: stable business and higher revenues
Cons: costly to build, maintain, and employ
Pros: stable job, higher wages paid on time, social benefits
Cons: Unregistered workers and minors cannot be employed, taxes
illegal subcontracting is widespread
example: Printing Workshop
permanent or pop-up
Killer Jeans- most sandblasting workshops in Turkey
Pros: low wages, little-no regulation
Cons: get in trouble in press, hard to take legal action against companies that hire them
Pros: no taxes on income, “unpaid family workers”-- kids-- can work, illegal immigrants can work
Cons: no social security, poorer work conditions, no job security “Mushroom Workshops”- textile workshops that shut down suddenly, often without paying wages.
Equality- wages based on skill level, not gender
Physical Conditions of the workshops vary
Wages low comared to other industries in Turkey
2012- spinning and weaving wage: $2.50 dollars per hour -- on a par with Mexico or Central Europe
“Double Bookkeeping” - under-reporting wages to the government, and only partially paying payroll taxes
Relatively high payroll taxes + with lagging enforcement incentive for employers to pay minimum wages to all workers officially, and then pay wage increases and overtime unofficially in cash. wages Protective Gear -Fair
Fire Safety -Good
2012 study- textile dyeing factories workers develop both acute and chronic respiratory symptoms.
2005-2010- 6000 jean sandblasting workers develop lung disease- silicosis. 46 died Complaints about the workplace related mostly to unhappiness, unpaid salaries, low wages, and excess overtime work HEALTH and SAFETY wages Istanbul or Izmir factories producing for high-profile brands: pay above legal minimum wage due to
high cost of living there and
competition among factories to attract and keep workers
Outside Istanbul: wages fall considerably below the legal minimum wage, sometimes halving it
Unregistered workers Wage Depending