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Jamaica & Creole Nationalism SPR14

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Julie Jenkins

on 17 March 2016

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Transcript of Jamaica & Creole Nationalism SPR14

Jamaica & Creole Nationalism
1950s & 1960s
--Jamaican Industrial Development Corporation
-Financed via North American Corps
-tax breaks, import duty relief
-Manufacturing & export
-cheap labor/imported raw materials
-examine how Jamaica's economic & political structures changed in 1950s & 60s
--how class and racial hierarchy shifts
-how musical expression was used to confront these changes via Ska (Rude- Boys) & Reggae
--MNCs from US & Canada establish Bauxite mining
Creation of Bretton Woods Institutions
-International Monetary Fund (IMF)
-International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
--IMF disburse credit needed to stabilize national currency exchanges.
--World Bank- provide loans for specific projects
"modernization theories"

Europe a 'model' to be applied to the rest
--focus on industrialization,
loans, aid aimed at stimulating the industrialization process, rather than for social investments
i.e., setting up infrastructure, energy systems, export base
the gap in income between 'First World' and 'Third World' increasing
-- "running hard but increasingly falling behind"
And the gap in income within the 'developing' countries were also increasing...with more people living in relative and absolute poverty.
--assumed 'trickle-down'
In Jamaica,
--expanded work opportunities & created some economic security
--GDP increased 6-7%

--employed fewer Jamaicans than agricultural production
--real income cut in half
--more alienation from land
--increased reliance on imported food
--food shortages
--increased crime b/c of lack of employment options
--housing shortages
Reorganize class structure:
--Some Jamaicans of African descent used educational opps to enter into professional employment
--but they didn't support a Rastafarian ideology or black nationalism.
--embraced British values of respectability
plans for Jamaica's independence 1944-1962
--1944- Universal Adult Sufferage
--1957- Britain starts to relinquish control; Jamaican representatives control economic policies
--1959-- Prime Minister, autonomous government; Britain only in relation to foreign policy
--1962-- Full Independence.
Need to create a sense of Nationalism
--belonging to a nation-state
"Out of Many, One People"
--Creole Nationalism
--emphasized racial equality, but "Africa" perceived as 'heritage'
--to unite, but not to glamorize
--continuation of colonial values and legitimizing class-based political domination.
--increased membership in movements that challenged the social, political & economic order

--conflict within religion about role of resistance
--through ritualized action OR
--through direct action?
--Henry Rebellion - 1960
--Coral Gardens - 1963
Middle-class perception of Rastafarians as criminals, lazy, lacking in education, violent
Rude Boy (Rudie)
--young, unskilled men
--ideas taken from Rastafarianism, but distinctly different
--picked up language, dreads
--fearsome persona
Ska & Rocksteady
--1st- Blues from US
--created sound-systems
--Ska incorporated sound with folk music
1960s- highest income inequality in world
--wealthiest 20% of population owns 61% of the nations wealth
--10% owns 64% of land
--1960- unemployment 12%
1969- unemployment 31%
political participation more equal (in terms of voting), some social mobility
--but...majority excluded from control of economic resources or manufacturing/tourism industries.
Walter Rodney
--professor at University of West Indies
--advocated for working poor, critiques development via industrialization
--banned 1968
--Rodney Riots/ October Revolution
1972- Michael Manley (PNP)
--alliance of lower class, rural peasantry, progressive middle-class
--used Rastafarian symbols within campaign
--Rastas as bearers of African identity
Social Reforms
--minumum wage
--free education
--subsidized meals/transport for students
--literacy programs
Economic Reforms
--Land distribution
--Nationalized banks
More economic mobility
--black entreprenuership takes off
--able to receive loans
--migration of some upper/middle class to US
But...affect by Oil Crisis of 1970s
--OPEC partly embargoes oil
--cost of oil rises from J$65 mil in 1973 to J$177 mil in 1974

--Bauxite declines in production/export (-25%)
--prices of staple food items increase
IMF loans $75 Million in 1977
--recover economy to be able to re-pay existing debts
WB- Structural Adjustment Loans
IMF- Structural Adjustment Programs
1. reduction of public spending (social programs, food subsidies)
2. currency devaluation
3. privatization of state enterprises (industry, water, electricity, phones)
4. reduction of wages to attract foreign investors
5. reduce export prices
6. trade liberalization (eliminate restrictions on imports)
didn't meet all the conditions
--reduced ability for future loans
--1980- worse condition than before loans

Election of 1980- Seaga
--institutes more IMF conditions
-Farmers unable to compete
-businesses led by those of African descent decline
--cuts to health care, education, social programs
-downward mobility
--re-establishes former class/racial hierarchies
--"Blackness" believed by upper classes to have brought about country's ruin
--Reggae declines
--emergence of Dancehall

--name from sound-systems of 1950s
--deejays over dub-plates
--sound clashes
--dancehall queen competitions
--glorification of sex, guns & drug-trade
--concerned middle-class
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