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Copy of Chemistry Lab - Flame Tests
Transcript of Copy of Chemistry Lab - Flame Tests
Atomic Emission and Electron Energy Levels
A Prezi Presentation...
Methods and Procedure
Post Lab Questions
An element has a specific color flame to it which differentiates it from other elements. The experiment works with standouts chloride, lead nitrate, cupric chloride, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and barium. As the chemicals get heated, energy is absorbed moving the electrons from a ground state to an excited state. After a period time the state goes back to normal, which is the ground state, emitting particle that are called photons. The photon decides the color of the light when it is heated; in addition, the flame color is measured by its wavelength. Distinct wavelengths have various amounts energy. Each element has a different flame color because the gaps between the energy levels are special for each element. To be able to see light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation but all the other kind of radiation makeup electromagnetic spectrum. A photon is actually a particle of electromagnetic radiation. The lights that people are able to see are between 400 to 700 nanometers so the wavelengths and energy are inversely proportional. In short photons with a lot of energy are attracted to light wavelengths and photons with low energy correspond with long wavelengths.
* Atomic emission
* Excited vs. Ground states
* Wavelength and energy of light
* Flame tests
The purpose of this experiment is to observe the characteristic flame test colors of different metal compounds and to use this information to solve for delta E
soaked in water
When conducting the lab, take notice of safety precaution by wearing goggles and a chemical resistant apron for some materials handled may be toxic
During the course of the lab, all participants should be making observations and collecting data
Remember to take pictures!
Now it's time for the procedure....
With the observations made during the lab, the data is then recorded in a Data Table (page 5). With the descriptions obtained in the Data Table, by using Equation One, the Results Table (page 6) can also be filled out with terms that are known and terms that are solved for.
Yikes! I forgot
Mr. Than, Period 2
1. Use Table 1 in the Background section to record the approximate wavelength of light emitted for each known metal ion in the Results Table.
2. Convert each wavelength in the Results Table from nanometers to meters. Show one sample calculation in the space below and record all values in the Results Table.
3. The characteristic color of the sodium flame is due to two closely-spaced energy transitions. Use Equation One from the Background section to calculate the average energy corresponding to the observed flame color for each metal. Show one sample calculation in the space below and record all values in joules in the Results Table.
4. What evidence is there from your results that the characteristic color observed for each compound is due to the metal ion in each case?
Describe and additional test that could be done to confirm that the color is due to the metal ion.
The characteristic color observed for each
compound is due to the metal ion because
it is a known fact that each metal ion has or
gives off a specific color. An additional test
that could be done to confirm that the color
is due to the metal ion would be to use another
substance of the same type. Ex: sodium-
hydroxide and calcium-hydroxide.
5. A glass rod was heated in a burner flame
and gave off a bright yellow flame. What
metal ion predominates in the glass rod?
According to the chart of wavelengths associated with each of the colors in the visible spectrum, the metal ion that predominates would have a wavelength that has to be between 580-585. The yellow flame is a
characteristic of sodium ions, which is a key
component in the composition of glass.
6. The alkali metals cesium and
rubidium were discovered based on their characteristic flame colors. Cesium is named after the sky and rubidium after the gem color. What colors of light do you think these metals give off when heated in a flame?
Based on the fact that these two elements
were discovered based on their characteristic flame colors, Cesium would produce a blue flame and Rubidium would produce a red flame.
1. Fill a 250-mL beaker half way with water. Take seven wooden splints that have been soaked and place them in the beaker to continue soaking.
2. Fill a second 250-mL beaker
half way with water and label it
as “rinse water”
3. Get eight dishes and label them as Stannous Chloride, Lead Nitrate, Cupric Chloride, Calcium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, Magnesium Chloride, Sodium Chloride, and Barium Chloride. Place a spoonful of each metal chloride into each corresponding dish.
4. Light the Bunsen burner.
5. Put one of the soaked splints into the metal chloride and place it in the flame. Observe the color and take it off into the water when finish.
7. Repeat Step 5 and 6 for all
other metal chlorides.
Barium Chloride - yellow green
Magnesium Chloride - white/no color
NaCl - orange
Potassium Chloride - light
Calcium Chloride - red orange
Stannous Chloride - white/purple
Lead Nitrate - white/pink
8. Clean up everything and put all
the materials back in their places.
9. Once you are done cleaning up, compare your observations with others to avoid any mistakes and proceed to data collection and calculations. The lab portion is now complete