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Transcript of ADOBE
management and skills
BENEFITS OF ADOBE
- controlling progressive of project
- new adjustments according to project needs
- comparing results with initial aims
- employees and customer feedback
the steps that lead to a result:
the results that come out of the system:
100 kg of soil
22 lt of water
2 kg of clay
10 kg of plaster
while the adobe mud is prepared, the water added to the soil should be rested for at least 1 day after mixing.
Adobe is a building material made from earth and often organic material.
It is basically just dirt that has been moistened with water, sometimes with chopped straw or other fibers added for strength, and then allowed to dry in the desired shape. Commonly adobe is shaped into uniform blocks that can be stacked like bricks to form walls, but it can also be simply piled up over time to create a structure.
As with other forms of earth construction, adobe bricks are a fireproof, durable yet biodegradable, non-toxic building material which provide sufficient thermal mass to buildings to ensure excellent thermal performance. Other benefits include low sound transmission levels through walls and a general feeling of solidity and security.
Set aside some space in which to work and an area in which the bricks can dry for a time - up to two weeks, possibly.
One way to do this is to get about 20 cinder blocks and arrange them in a square, two layers deep. Then line the inside of the pit with a heavy duty tarp
Fill a jar (or plastic bottle - make sure it's see-through) halfway with the soil sample. Fill it the rest of the way with water. Shake vigorously for about a minute, then let it sit overnight. The next day, the soil will have settled into distinct bands. The bottom of the jar will have the larger-sized materials - sand and small pebbles - with smaller and smaller sized particles banding towards the top. The top band will be the clay or different silt. Ideally, the three bands will be about the same size. If your sample has more than a third sand (the bottom layer), you may not need to add any sand to your adobe.
Measure the length of the wall in feet.
Determine the height of the wall in feet.
Since bricks (and thus the wall) are made 10" (25.5 cm) thick, multiply the length by height by 0.83 (10 in = .83 ft).
Divide that by 27. This is the total volume in cubic yards of the wall
Sand (about half - 50% of your total volume). Sand is usually sold by the ton - you can calculate tonnage by multiplying your volume by .83. The sand should be relatively fine sand - beach sand or slightly larger works fine. NOTE: The amount of sand you mix in is very dependent upon the clay you have available, your climate, and how strong you want the wall. It's entirely relative - and there's really no wrong way to do this.
Clay (about a third of your total volume). Again, clay or fill dirt is usually sold by the ton. Multiply your volume by .9 if it is dry, .7 if it is wet.
Straw (about 10 - 20% of your total volume). Straw is sold in bales of various sizes. The most common "big" bales are 14"x18"x36" (35.5 centimeter (14.0 in) x 45.7 centimeter (18.0 in) x 91.4 centimeter (36.0 in), which is .15 cubic yards. So multiply your total volume by .015 to get the number of "big" bales you'll need
A typical form is made using two 2x4 studs, which are 96" long. Note that a typical stud is actually 1.5" (3.8 cm) by 3.5" (8.8 cm), which is why the lengths are odd (25.5", for example)
Lay a foundation of gravel or stone.
Lay bricks flat on your foundation.
as mortar between bricks. You can layer the mortar up to 4" ( 10 cm) thick, though 1" or 2" (2.5 cm - 5 cm)is probably enough.
Use the mud mixture - or mud and straw mixture -
as a plaster once the wall is built and dry. This adds a stucco look to the wall, which can look very pleasing to the eye.
Use the mud mixture (it should be drier than the mixture you made for the bricks)
Prepare a pit that will be used to mix your sand, clay, and water
Perform a "jar test" to determine your soil suitability
Calculate the volume of your wall:
Create a form for making the bricks.
Shovel together sand and clay in the pit. These should be mixed according to the amounts you have and your own desires - again, there's really no wrong way.
Add water - enough to make the mixture "soupy."
Mix together - the easiest way to do this is to take off your socks and shoes, roll up your pant legs, and jump in with both feet. Mix around until you don't find any dry patches.
Lay out a tarp and shovel on several shovel loads of the mud. As you scoop out the mud, try to let excess water drain back into the pit. You can also use a 5 gallon (18.9 L) bucket to scoop out mud onto the tarp. Cover about a third of the center of the tarp
Sprinkle a couple of large handfuls of straw onto the mud. You want to break it up so it's not clumpy - and take out any "sticks" of straw that might hurt when you step on them.
Stomp on the mixture. The goal is to thoroughly mix the straw and the mud, so stomp around a lot.
Pick up one side of the tarp so that the mixture falls back onto itself - sort of like kneading dough
Keep mixing together in this way, adding straw as needed, until the mixture is fairly solid and hard to knead.
Grab large handfuls of the mixture and put them into the brick form. Make sure to push the mixture into the corners well, and punch it into the form so it is filled and solid
Let the bricks dry in the form for a short while - 15 minutes at least. You can then remove the form and start filling it again.
Let the bricks sit where they are and dry a while - an hour or so. When they're solid and dry enough to move, stand them up on their sides to dry some more. It may take a week until they're dry enough to build the wall with
Disasters can have a severe impact on whole communities, but the impact can be especially difficult for the more vulnerable in our societies: women and children.
What people need
in case of disaster
This is a new approach how to care to those who experienced disaster-related trauma or stress.
RELIANCE ON CAREGIVERS
Children are physically and emotionally dependent on their caregivers, including their coaches, teachers, leaders. If leaders, coaches and other caregivers are unprepared for a variety of disasters, children are left
vulnerable, scared and at higher risk of harm.
COMMUNICATION AND IDENTIFICATION
are in schools or child care settings and could be separated from their families in the
event of a disaster. All child-focused programs should be equipped with the correct ID information for each child.
Children’s bodies are smaller and less developed, putting them at greater risk of illness or harm during an emergency.
For example, because children have thinner skin, take more breaths per minute, and are closer to the ground than
adults, they are more susceptible to harmful chemicals or carbon monoxide poisoning from fire smoke or chemical
leaks. Children also require age and size appropriate doses of medication, which should be included in disaster
SAFETY AND PROTECTION
Items that adults use every day can harm children. Medications, cleaning supplies, knives, plastic bags, coins,
batteries and other small objects are unsafe for unattended children to be around. In the chaos of a disaster, it is
important to have enough adults to care for children, ensure that dangerous substances and objects are not within
reach and also provide them with the supplies that they need. This rule also applies in disaster shelters, where
planners and shelter managers should consider how the shelter setup can best protect children. For example, are
there family areas and family bathrooms set aside for parents or guardians with children?
Children, no matter what age, are deeply affected by experiences of death, destruction, terror and the absence or
powerlessness of their parents or guardians during a disaster. Their adult leaders’ reactions and responses can often
add an additional layer of stress. Children process these events with limited understanding, and require specialized
support to develop the knowledge and healthy coping skills needed to heal and recover.
ROUTINE AND COMFORT
Children depend on routine to help them make sense of their surroundings and feel comforted. Whether it is
recreation time, snack time or story time, keeping schedules consistent following a disaster is crucial in helping
children cope and recover.
SAVE THE CHILDREN
SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN