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Lecture 3: Coffee and Revolution in the Modern World

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Christian Knudsen

on 18 November 2014

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Transcript of Lecture 3: Coffee and Revolution in the Modern World

Lecture 3: Coffee and Revolution in the Modern World
Review
Origins of Coffee
Coffee in the Islamic World
Coffee in Europe
Coffee and Revolution
Conclusions
Coffee Today
Coffee and Science
Coffee and social Revolution
-2.5 billion cups drank around the world each day
-one of the world's most valuable commodities after oil
-90% production in developing countries
-mostly consumed in wealthy industrialized countries
Coffee shops -- the 18th century Internet
French Revolution, 1789-99
Scientific Revolution
Social Revolution
Revolutionary Political Thinkers
American Revolution
1775-83
The Old London Coffee House, Philadelphia
American coffeehouses as "seminaries of sedition."
French Revolution, 1789-99
Camille Desmoulins, 1760-94
-young lawyer who launched French Revolution from
Café de Foy - July 12, 1789

-jumped on a table shouting "to arms! to arms!"
Voltaire, 1694-1778
-great Enlightenment thinker/writer
-early advocate of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.
drank 50 cups a day....
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712-78
-important political philosopher
-author of Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and On the Social Contract
"I love that perfume. When they roast it in my entry-way, some of my neighbours close their doors but I open mine."
"It excites cheerfulness without intoxication; and the pleasing flow of spirits which it occasions...is never followed by sadness, languor or debility."
Benjamin Franklin (1706-90)
-writer, political theorist, scientist, politician, stateman
"Penny" Universities of London and Oxford
Unregulated academic discussion and exchange of ideas
Christopher Wren (1632 – 1723)
Edmond Halley (1656 – 1742)
Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703)
Argument about planetary orbits and gravity
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica - 1687
Late 18th century -- formal lectures
Marine Coffee House, London
-popular venue for mathematics lectures
Coffee shop topic specialization
Commercial Revolution
-London coffee houses become centres of trade and commerce
-current shipping news
Lloyd's coffee house opens on Towers Street in London, 1688
Edmund Lloyd (c. 1648–1713)
-popular place for sailors, merchants, and shipowners, and Lloyd catered to them with reliable shipping news
Lloyd's of London
-begins informally at Lloyd's coffee house -- insurance among merchants
-formally becomes The Society of Lloyd's - 1774
-In 2012, Lloyd's made a pre-tax profit of £2.77 billion
Jonathan's Coffee-House, established 1680
London Stock Exchange -- founded 1801
New "Jonanthan's"
The coffee house internet
Coffee arrives in Europe during 17th century
In 1652, St. Michael’s Alley, the first cafe in London opened its doors
Coffee controversy
-attempts to close all coffee houses in 1675
Charles II (1630 – 85)
Coffee and free speech
Coffee and Gender
Empires of Coffee
-Islamic dominance until late 18th century
-Dutch first to establish European supplies of coffee
-1690 Dutch East India company establishes coffee plantations in Java
Gabriel de Clieu (1687 – 1774)
-French Naval offier stationed in West Indies, Island of Martinique
-brings cuttings of coffee tree from Paris and plants them in Martinique
-exports to France begin 1730
-Coffee cultivation first took place in southern Arabia

- earliest written references in Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia
"qahwah" spreads to Mecca and Cairo by 1510
-controversy over its status
as intoxicant

Muslim scholars defined intoxicant as:
" absent minded and confused.." and "...one cannot know a man from woman.."
The wine of Islam
Etymology
-word "coffee" enters English in 1582 via Dutch koffee
-from Turkish kahve and Arabic qahwa, originally qahhwat al-bun 'wine of the bean'.
-origins in Ethiopia
-grows wild in the forests of the south-western highlands
-coffee cherries originally eaten?
Beer
Wine
Full transcript