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Lecture 3: Coffee and Revolution in the Modern World

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Christian Knudsen

on 18 November 2014

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Transcript of Lecture 3: Coffee and Revolution in the Modern World

Lecture 3: Coffee and Revolution in the Modern World
Origins of Coffee
Coffee in the Islamic World
Coffee in Europe
Coffee and Revolution
Coffee Today
Coffee and Science
Coffee and social Revolution
-2.5 billion cups drank around the world each day
-one of the world's most valuable commodities after oil
-90% production in developing countries
-mostly consumed in wealthy industrialized countries
Coffee shops -- the 18th century Internet
French Revolution, 1789-99
Scientific Revolution
Social Revolution
Revolutionary Political Thinkers
American Revolution
The Old London Coffee House, Philadelphia
American coffeehouses as "seminaries of sedition."
French Revolution, 1789-99
Camille Desmoulins, 1760-94
-young lawyer who launched French Revolution from
Café de Foy - July 12, 1789

-jumped on a table shouting "to arms! to arms!"
Voltaire, 1694-1778
-great Enlightenment thinker/writer
-early advocate of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.
drank 50 cups a day....
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712-78
-important political philosopher
-author of Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and On the Social Contract
"I love that perfume. When they roast it in my entry-way, some of my neighbours close their doors but I open mine."
"It excites cheerfulness without intoxication; and the pleasing flow of spirits which it occasions...is never followed by sadness, languor or debility."
Benjamin Franklin (1706-90)
-writer, political theorist, scientist, politician, stateman
"Penny" Universities of London and Oxford
Unregulated academic discussion and exchange of ideas
Christopher Wren (1632 – 1723)
Edmond Halley (1656 – 1742)
Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703)
Argument about planetary orbits and gravity
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica - 1687
Late 18th century -- formal lectures
Marine Coffee House, London
-popular venue for mathematics lectures
Coffee shop topic specialization
Commercial Revolution
-London coffee houses become centres of trade and commerce
-current shipping news
Lloyd's coffee house opens on Towers Street in London, 1688
Edmund Lloyd (c. 1648–1713)
-popular place for sailors, merchants, and shipowners, and Lloyd catered to them with reliable shipping news
Lloyd's of London
-begins informally at Lloyd's coffee house -- insurance among merchants
-formally becomes The Society of Lloyd's - 1774
-In 2012, Lloyd's made a pre-tax profit of £2.77 billion
Jonathan's Coffee-House, established 1680
London Stock Exchange -- founded 1801
New "Jonanthan's"
The coffee house internet
Coffee arrives in Europe during 17th century
In 1652, St. Michael’s Alley, the first cafe in London opened its doors
Coffee controversy
-attempts to close all coffee houses in 1675
Charles II (1630 – 85)
Coffee and free speech
Coffee and Gender
Empires of Coffee
-Islamic dominance until late 18th century
-Dutch first to establish European supplies of coffee
-1690 Dutch East India company establishes coffee plantations in Java
Gabriel de Clieu (1687 – 1774)
-French Naval offier stationed in West Indies, Island of Martinique
-brings cuttings of coffee tree from Paris and plants them in Martinique
-exports to France begin 1730
-Coffee cultivation first took place in southern Arabia

- earliest written references in Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia
"qahwah" spreads to Mecca and Cairo by 1510
-controversy over its status
as intoxicant

Muslim scholars defined intoxicant as:
" absent minded and confused.." and "...one cannot know a man from woman.."
The wine of Islam
-word "coffee" enters English in 1582 via Dutch koffee
-from Turkish kahve and Arabic qahwa, originally qahhwat al-bun 'wine of the bean'.
-origins in Ethiopia
-grows wild in the forests of the south-western highlands
-coffee cherries originally eaten?
Full transcript