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Effects of Color of Papers

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Garam Lee

on 30 April 2014

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Transcript of Effects of Color of Papers

• We investigated the effects of Color Paper and Gender on Test Performance

• The main effect for Color Paper was not significant

• Skinner (2004), Tal, Agkers, and Hodge (2008)

•Clary Rene (2007)

• Research indicated students performed better on white paper

• We hypothesize women will perform better than males on test performances, this was inconsistent with our result

Effects of Color of Papers
4 Different Colors of Paper

Test Packet
English Compression
Former Studies
Investigated: the effects of
Color of Paper
Test Performance
in students and in
Theory: Humans are emotionally or mentally effected by color.
The current study investigated the effects of Color of Paper (white, yellow, blue, red;
within-subjects design) and Gender (male, female; between-subjects design) on Test
Performance by using a 4 × 2 mixed-subjects design.

Color of Paper and Gender
Color of Paper
The main effect of Color of Paper was not significant,
F(3, 90) = 1,867, MSE = 5.525, p = .141
such that the mean number of correct responses was equivalent in all color of paper conditions.
ANOVA Source Table
2X4 mixed subject
The study was limited by its small sample size

Sample size of participant males was small

Not enough time to finish test sections

Instructors can continue to administer tests on different color of paper

This result holds true for both men and female

Color paper will not hold an effect on gender

Skinner (2004)
Research Design
2 (Gender) X 5 (Color of Paper; blue, green, red, yellow, white) Person-by-Treatment Design

- 265 undergraduate students (163 women, 102 men) - The mean age: 19 years old

Test Material
- Multiple-choice midterm for intro psychology

The main effect for...
(Tukey post-hoc analysis using a bonferroni correction)
- Color of Paper was significant
: mean test scores: white paper > red, yellow > green, blue
- Gender was not significant

Our research topic was created by joining two separate ideas

We were interested in our topic because of:
personal experience

The purpose of our research is to see the color of paper has an effect on test performance and gender
The main effect for Gender was not significant such that
the mean level of performance for
Males (M = 16.091, SE = .971) was not significantly different than the mean level of performance for
Female (M = 17.464, SE = .703), F(1, 30) = 1.312, MSE = 41.509, p = .261
The Color of Paper X Gender
interaction was not significant,
F(3,90) = 1.174, MSE = 5.525, p = .324
Clary, Wandersee, and Elias (2007)
Research Design
2 (Gender) x 4 (Paper Color, pastel blue, pink, yellow and green) Person-by-Treatment design

- 150+ students intro geology course for non-majors
- Four semesters

Test Material
Four versions of 50 multiple-choice questions exam were color-coded

The significant main effect
(two-way ANOVA, Tukey’s HSD)
- The number of times participants took the exam
- Gender

Fordham and Hayes (2009)
Research Design
- Unifactorial (red vs. green vs. achromatic) between-subjects ANCOVA
- Covariates: general ability, premanipulation numeric or analogy performance, task choice, EEG frontal asymmetry, EEG premanipulation frontal asymmetry, gender

- Males and females (Age: 15 ~ 44 years old)
- High school or undergrad students (US or Germany)

Test Material
- Language-based or number-based tests

- Red evoke avoidance motivation

Elliot, Maier, Moller, Freidman and Meinhardt (2007)
Research Design
- IV: Color of Paper (white, pastel yellow, pastel green,
pastel blue, pastel pink), Gender
- Covariate: Course, Gender, Gender X Color of Paper

- 4,000 undergraduate students from 5 instructors
- Collected for 10 years

Test Material
Written assessment of Principles of Accounting courses

The significant main effect
- Color of Paper (white, yellow, green > blue, pink)
- Covariate Instructor

Mehta and Zhu (2009)
- The effect of Color (red, blue) on Cognitive Task Performance

Test Material
- Anagrams on computer
- The screen color was manipulated

- Red: enhance detailed oriented task
- Blue: enhance creative task

Tal, Agkers, and Hodge (2008)
The effects of Color of Paper, Question Order, and Gender on Test Performance

- Undergrad students from an Intro Psychology class
- Experiment 1: 362 men, 230 women
- Experiment 2: 434 men, 247 women

Test Material
- Experiment 1: multiple choice test, black print on
white, red, green and blue

- Experiment 2: multiple choice test, black print on

white, pastel pink, light yellow, and light green

The significant main effect
- White paper > blue, green, red

2- Women will get better test scores overall, regardless of Color of Paper
1- White exams will have better test scores overall.
3- Men will achieve better test scores on white and light blue paper than red and yellow.
Full transcript