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Transcript of Group 8!
after the French Revolution promoted equality and freedom, Jews were granted rights and encouraged to join European society
this caused the ghettos to appear not as a place of refuge, but as an anchor for those who were prepared to better their lives
"...as full German citizens, they could no longer consider themselves to be strangers, expecting to be delivered from bondage by a Messiah..." (The Mission of Reform Judaism)
"They recognized that in order to save Judaism, the young generation had to be impressed with the truth that to be a German in culture and in politics was not inconsistent with being a loyal Jew, that Judaism as a living faith must be distinguished from the forms in which it is expressed..." (The Mission of Reform Judaism) Orthodox Judaism Khailee Marischuk
Corey Campbell Judaism and Modernity Amber Hill http://www.aish.com/jl/h/cc/48955721.html
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1195093?&Search=yes&searchText=reform&searchText=judaism&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dreform%2Bjudaism%26acc%3Doff%26wc%3Don&prevSearch=&item=3&ttl=11606&returnArticleService=showFullText Bibliography Khailee Marischuk The Reform Movement Ally Wilson Conservative Judaism Corey Campbell Twentieth-Century Theology What is the Reform Movement? a social and religious movement that originated in the early 19th century in Europe, particularly in Germany
started when Jews were given citizenship rights and the ability to move through society like all others
many began to neglect religious traditions as they adopted ones more common to the country they lived in Moses Mendelsohn
predated what is now considered the Reform Movement but many of his ideas were adopted into the Reformist platform
believed that Judaism was a religion, not a nationality, and that Jews could view themselves as both a member of the Jewish community as well as a patriot of their own country
major proponent of Jewish rights and equality in Germany
believed that it was important to study the modern history of the Jewish people as well as the ancient history within the Torah
wanted to study the Jewish texts as regular historical material and not divinely written books
sought to find a balance between secular and religious live while trying to make Judaism appealing to modern people Reformist Thinkers the 19th century was the perfect time for religious skepticism because of the Enlightenment
the Enlightenment was a social movement rooted in the scientific ideals of reasoning and logic
many Jewish Reformers believed if the religious law made little logical sense, then the only option is to apply reason and find a better way
Reformers were centered in Western Europe, especially Germany, because of the new freedoms they found there
they were considered full citizens with all the rights any other citizen was granted
they had to find a balance between the demands of Judaism and of European society Why then? major tenets still the same
"Its theology, as formulated by Abraham Geiger and his followers, is based on reason and on the scientific study of the Bible, Talmud, and Jewish tradition." (The Mission of Reform Judaism
used modern Western musical instruments and changed the service from Hebrew to the vernacular
before, there was no music and all the of the prayers were in Hebrew
modeled services on the Christian services by reducing the amount of prayers and changing the service times from Saturday night to Sunday
called synagogues "temples" in order to point out the movement away from Zionism
Reformed Jews tend not to look toward the reestablishment of the temple in Jerusalem
"A Messiah who is to lead back the Israelites to the land of Palestine is neither expected nor desired by us; we know no fatherland except that to which we belong by birth or citizenship." (The Mission of Reform Judaism) Ideology of Reform Judaism circumcision and keeping kosher was viewed as personal decisions each family had to make independently
if the family did not think that the dietary laws aided their faith, they were not forced to abide by the rules of kashrut
attempted to rid the religion of the troublesome or outdated traditions that were not directly rooted in the Torah
disregarded laws, many concerning divorce and marriage, that unnecessarily complicated life Breaks with Tradition Reform Judaism has spread to many countries
in North America: known as Progressive Judaism and is the largest denomination of American Jews
in the UK: known as UK Reform and UK Liberal Judaism
while many denominations may be considered "reform" each has its specific practices
some sects have adopted more radical changes than others
while they are part of the same movement, they do not necessarily have the same ideals, much like the different denominations in Protestantism for Christianity Reform Judaism Beyond Germany Epistemology: the Torah and religious writings are all still valid source of knowledge but they act more as guidelines as opposed to absolute laws
Anthropology: no longer are Jews solely defined as descendants of Moses but they should try to adopt the national identity
Teleology: the Jews must still live lives that reflect the ideas within the Torah but must also try to assimilate as much as possible with society; Zionism is not as important as it once (should hope and pray for a return to the promised land but no need to actively seek it out and fight for it)
Methodology: take the laws from the Torah and follow the ones that make rational sense and can fit into the modern life, abandon traditions that are seen as outdated or barbaric Changes in Religiology What is Orthodox Judaism? The preservation of Jewish traditions
Very "by the book"
Services in Hebrew
Sabbath traditions according to laws in the Talmud
Women's Role in society
Wasn't one specific movement but many different movements with the same basic principles only differing in which details are emphasized.
Just remember, the main focus is Dedication to the Torah, both written and oral. Even though they live very strict by the rules, they understand that they have to live in today's modern society.
How to be modern but still hold on to traditions?
Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch
Positive program for modern Orthodoxy.
Enjoy modern times but still maintain separation
Yisroel Mensch - 'a humane member of Israel' How to cope with modern times? View of HaShem
Omnibenevolent Holocaust Theology Problem of Evil
Good without Evil
God without the Devil How can you keep the faith? Mordecai Kaplan Reconstructionists Theology Combination of atheist beliefs with religious terminology Traditional beliefs of Judaism became incompetent Modernism "God is the Power in the cosmos that gives human life the direction that enables the human being to reflect the image of God." The Meaning of God in Modern Jewish Religion
Judaism in Transition Judaism vs. Christianity Franz Rosenzweig The Star of Redemption "Der Stern der Erlosung" "God can sometimes enter an eclipse" Martin Buber Jewish covenant with God Zionism
"Ich und Du"
The Bible Definition Meant to conserve Jewish Tradition, not reform or abolish it Also called Traditional Judaism and Masorti Judaism Zecharias Frankel Reform movements and Conservative Jüdische Wissenschaft ('science of Judaism') as betrayal of Authentic Judaism.
Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch
Positive program for Modern Orthodoxy
Gave credit to modern world (Derekh Eretz- 'European Life') along with traditional sources of Jewish identity (The Torah -'Jewish religious truth' )
Jew's should enjoy modern life while maintaining the separation that is necessary for Jewish survival.
A person should be both a good person and a good Jew
Yisroel Mensch - 'Humane member of Israel ' "...what kind of Judaism would that be, if we were allowed to bring it up to date? If the Jew were actually permitted at any given time to bring his Judaism up to date, then he would no longer have any need for it, it would no longer be worthwhile speaking of Judaism."
- S.R. Hirsch 'The Dangers of Updating Judaism' Rabbi Sampson Raphael Hirsch But what effect does this have on politics? Politically, Israel is a modern western style democracy and the political parties are secular in their ideology but religiously speaking, Israel is Orthodox.
None of the political parties has been able to hold their own without help from a religious party.
This creates a sort of give and take relationship. The religious party demands it be the spokes person for Judaism and makes religious demands for the national life of the country.
What does this mean?
Specific matters, such as marriage and divorce for example, are controlled by orthodox communities. "Orthodox Judaism" Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, Mar. 2012. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Orthodox.html>.
"From Orthodoxy to fundamentalism" Samson Blinded. Obadiah Shoher, 28 May 2008. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. <http://samsonblinded.org/blog/from-orthodoxy-to-fundamentalism.htm>
"Ultra-orthodox reflection of Israeli politics" Michael Marder. Al Jazeera, 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. <http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/01/20121982034753751.html> In very recent times, the Israeli population has had problem with Orthodox Jewish men harassing women and even young girls about the way they dress calling it provocative, and wanting gender segregation on buses going as far as forcing females out of their seats.
These are conflicts concerting the secular portion of Israel and the Ultra-Orthodox Jews
This video is taken from a new's clip of a recent event involving the harassment of an eight year old girl. Are there issues? started in Germany in the mid-1880s History forerunner of this movement was
Rabbi Zecharias Frankel came to the United States in the early 1900s broke from Reform Judaism taught "Positive- Historical" huge increase in synagogue construction because people were moving to suburbs decline in 2000 United Synagogue of
Conservative Judaism Solomon Schechter member of the Jewish founded the United later, became president Theological Seminary in 1913 Conservative Judaism Synagogue of grew rapidly in the early 1900s, becoming the largest American Jewish denomination modern but traditional appealed to Eastern European Jewish immigrants in 1990s After World War II 43% of Jewish households affiliated with a Conservative synagogue still the largest denomination in America branches began to form Reconstructionist Judaism Splits in Conservative Judaism 33% of households were affiliated now Union for Traditional Judaism 7 Main Beliefs 1. God as Creator and Governor 7. Jewish law and tradition will enrich Jewish life 6. Israel is not only the Holy Land 5. Jewish law emphasizes the importance of ethics 4. Spiritual life is deepened by the Halakhah and Aggadah 3. Pluralism characterizes Jewish life 2. Authority comes from the Halakhah Overview of
Conservative Judaism http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/conservatives.html http://www.uscj.org/Aboutus/OurStructure/History.aspx Pollock, Benjamin, "Franz Rosenzweig", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2009/entries/rosenzweig/>. Zank, Michael, "Martin Buber", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/buber/>. Social Changes