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Copy of Beginning of Civilization
Transcript of Copy of Beginning of Civilization
How long have humans been around?
Where did humans originate?
Mary & Louis Leakey
Archaeologist: person who studies prehistoric people and their material culture (a type of anthropologist)
Anthropologist: person who studies all aspects of human life
humans & early human-like creatures that walked around upright
Means "Southern ape"
4-5 million years ago
Upright, walks on 2 legs
Brain was 1/3 size of ours
Means "Handy man"
2.4 million years ago
Used crude stone tools for chopping and scraping
Brain was 1/2 size of ours
Means "Upright man"
2-1.5 million years ago
Used early stone tools (i.e. hand ax)
Learned to control fire
Migrated out of Africa
600,000-350,000 years ago
Used more advanced tools
Found in Europe
Brain might have been bigger than ours
Means "Wise man"
200,000 years ago
Migrated around the world
Most like modern humans
Learned to create fire, developed a language
Found skull fragments in East Africa
175 millions years old
Found a partial skeleton
3 million years old
homo sapien sapiens (1st modern humans)
early humans migrated out of Africa to other places
- Ice Age
- Could create fire
- Had better tools
moved from one place to another
2.5 million - 10,000 years ago
Nomads (moved from place to place) following animals
Lived in small bands/groups
Hunter-gatherers (fish, game, plants, berries, nuts)
Crude tools from wood, bone, or stone
Made string, needles, shelter, & canoes
Developed language & spiritual beliefs
10,000 - 5,000 years ago
Tools more specialized (plow, hoes)
Neolithic Revolution - development of farming
Added grains to diet
Domestication - selecting what to grow/raise
Pastoralists - kept animals & moved around
Religion advanced - societies include megaliths (huge stone monuments)
3000 years ago
People used metal for tools
Followed by iron age
1. What is culture?
2. What are artifacts?
3. What do we do with artifacts?
4. What years are in the 12th century?
5. Name the 6 continents you need to know for your map quiz.
6. What continent is India in?
7. What country is between Afghanistan and Pakistan?
When you are finished, STUDY for your map quiz!! :)
cluster of humans
Division of labor
formal organization of humans
Complex, formal organization of humans
Economy: a society's way of producing & using resources
Types of Economies:
Traditional - custom, religion decides
Command - government decides
Market - individuals decide
SURPLUS leads to:
need for place to store surplus food
need for place to trade surplus food
time to develop new crafts (i.e. pottery)
cultural diffusion (exchanging ideas)
Solution: City = trade center
workers with special skills improve quality of work
"Artisans" - specialized workers that focus on one job
leads to cooperation on city projects
formal religion (values)
organized government (laws, organized defense, public projects)
social classes (difference between the wealthy & poor)
advanced economy (means of trade)
Scribes write down records
Means they need a written language to keep track of taxes, sales, dates, etc.
better way of doing things
requires fewer farmers
new tools (bronze, copper, tin)
Settling in one place
War over land
So where would you settle if you needed:
land to settle on
water for irrigation
fertile land for farming
a way to travel from place to place
NEAR A RIVER
It makes sense... One thing leads to another
...All are near rivers.
1. What is the difference between archaeology and anthropology?
2. What is the difference between a nomad, hunter-gather, and pastoralist?
3. What is a hominid?
4. Name & briefly describe the major characteristics of 4 types of hominids.
5. What was the Neolithic Revolution?
6. Define culture.
7. What is domestication?
8. What was the Ice Age?
Also, take out your VOCAB so I can check it.
Farmers, unskilled workers
political unit with its own government
Polytheistic - belief in many gods (ex. Enlil is god of air & storms)
Believed gods looked & acted like people
Ziggurat (pyramid like temple) in center of city
Walls & fields around the city (protection from outsiders)
Priests are part of the upper class
1st to keep written records
Cuneiform = written language
At first used to keep records, then write the law, then create literature (ex. Epic of Gilgamesh)
Number system based on on the # 60 (how we get our hours, minutes)
Advanced geometry (needed for irrigation systems)
Created the wheel, plow, weapons, pottery
Started a sewer system
Performed basic surgery
Traded wood & metals from SW Asia
Became a trade center
Akkad is a civilization that forms north of Sumer, led by Sargon I
Sargon creates a permanent army & conquers Sumer -- creates FIRST EMPIRE (different kingdoms and people under 1 ruler)
Decides to keep Sumerian culture (writing, power of priests, etc.)
Empire last for 140 years & leads to the spread of Sumerian culture
Amorite tribe led by Hammurabi conquers Mesopotamia & starts the Babylonian Empire
Hammurabi is an awesome warrior & leader
Also adopts Sumerian culture (language, gods, power of priests)
He increases trade & wealth
He writes down the law & punishments -- called Hammurabi's Code (1st written laws)
Horse drawn Chariots
Mastered iron working
Trade across Mediterranean
Established Kingdom of Israel
Huge empire broken into 20 provinces led by satraps
196 - If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
200 - If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.
202 - If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall recieve sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.
Epic of Gilgamesh
book of Mesopotamian myths that give us an idea of what life was like
1. Define civilization.
2. Name the 5 traits of a civilization.
3. What are artisans?
4. What is economy? What type of economy did early civilizations have?
5. What is cultural diffusion?
6. Name the 4 earliest civilizations.
7. What is unique about the 4 earliest civilizations? (In other words, what do they all have in common?)
8. What does a river provide for a civilization?
1. What is a city-state?
2. What does "extinct" mean?
3. How did Australopithecus get food?
4. Why did ancient civilizations change over time? (think about Sumer)
5. What was special about Homo Habilis?
6. What years are in the 12th century?
7. What is the significance of the Neolithic Revolution?
8. What is the barter system?
1. Pick 4 civilizations in the Mesopotamia and describe their accomplishments.
2. We break history into Ages & Eras. Describe what you know about Ages & Eras from Unit 1.
3. Describe the transition from hunter-gatherer societies to civilizations (you can draw a flow chart if it helps)
4. What do rivers offer civilizations?
5. How do we know religion was important in Sumer & later civilizations?
When you're finished, STUDY for your test :)
Unit 2 Vocabulary
Ramses the Great
Mandate of Heaven