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Unit 4: The Constitutional Convention (Part 1, 2, 3)
Transcript of Unit 4: The Constitutional Convention (Part 1, 2, 3)
Constitutional Convention; Part 1
1786 a meeting was held in Annapolis, Maryland.
The delegates would work to fix the problems in the Articles of Confederation.
The men who attended were:
- very well educated
- came from different walks of life
- Soldiers during the American Revolution
Constitutional Convention Part 2
During the convention the major issue was the power struggle between small states and large states
was an idea that there would be
2 houses of Congress
that was based on population.
- proposed by James Madison
- Larger states would control the Gov.
Constitutional Convention Part 3
As soon as 9 states approved the Constitution, it would go into effect.
- The convention stopped September 17, 1787. Fighting for ratification of the Constitution began.
The Constitution was supported by the
who published what was called The Federalists Papers.
- These papers were used to persuade the people that the Constitution was valuable.
fought against the Constitution, BUT they were NOT successful.
These men were also elected to serve as a members of their state government.
8 had signed the Declaration of Independence.
2 of these men would eventually become presidents of the U.S.
26 would eventually serve in the House or Senate.
The delegates met in Philadelphia, in
President of the convention was George Washington.
The Articles needed to be replaced with a new constitution.
- all of the delegates agreed the new
government had to be strong enough to rule and entire nation.
The "Father of the Constitution" is
Slavery & the Constitution
Many northern states had outlawed slavery
- Delegates during the convention knew that if slavery was taken away, the Southern states would NOT accept the Constitution.
The delegates did not take slavery off the table.
- Because of the other freedoms addressed in the Bill of Rights, slavery was not outlawed.
Someone is Missing????
There were no women, blacks, indians or middle class/poor white men.
This was not surprising, because these
groups of people were not even allowed to vote at this time
"New Jersey Plan"
geared towards helping the smaller states.
- Wanted to have
one house of Congress.
- AKA "Small State Plan" presented by William Paterson
ALL STATES would be represented regardless of size
A Compromise WAS MADE!
The new Gov. would have 2 houses in Congress.
House of Representatives
Each state would be represented by population.
- Large States
Each state would
- Small States
There were many other compromises that had to be made.....
(1) Slave trade
(2) How long the presidents "term" for leading the country would be
(3) Voting qualifications
(4) Slaves being seen as "people" when figuring out the number of state representatives.
- "Three-Fifths Compromise"
was the compromise that allowed for 3/5 of slaves would count for representation in population.
Delegate Distrust of the People
The delegates did NOT trust the people.
- The delegates wanted the president to be elected by "electors" from states and
not by the people
- These "electors" would be called......
The Electoral College.
- "Electors" were assigned to
- The number of "Electors" was the
same number as representatives
you have for your state.
the vote of the people.
- vote that is from everyone else/majority of the state approves of.
A vote that is made my "certain" people is NOT a popular vote......
- "certain" being from the House or Senate
The Constitutional Convention came to the conclusion that the election of Senators should be elected by
- 17th Amendment of the Constitution changed that. The people in the states were now able to elect their own senators.
The major reason for this distrust was because the "common man" was not represented in the Constitutional Convention.
- 40/55 were wealthy.
- 15 had slaves
- 14 owned land in the West
- 0 were farmers OR working men
June 21, 1788
New Hampshire was the 9th state to ratify (approve) the Constitution. On this date the Constitution took effect.
Federalists and Anti-Federalists still fought with one another.
- Created 2 separate political groups under the new government.
January 7, 1789
held its first presidential election.
- only white men who owned property were able to vote.
- these men chose "electors" who elected candidates for the presidential election.
Our First President
George Washington won the election and was sworn into office on April 30, 1789.
- he was voted as both commander - in - chief of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and as the president of the Constitutional Convention.
Citizenship & Becoming President
The Constitutional Convention thought of a president who was born in the USA......
- A "peoples" man
In Article 2, Section 1
"No person except a natural - born citizen...shall be eligible to the office of president."
The delegates did not want to have a foreign country sending someone to run for the highest political office of this new government.
Immigrants could become citizens...."naturalized" citizens
- These citizens could not become president, only natural - born citizens were eligible to run for president.