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A Quick History of Mass Media

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Jon Zmikly

on 26 August 2013

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Transcript of A Quick History of Mass Media

and where is it going?
Where Has the Media Been?
According to scientists, markings found in Africa show humans have been writing since 35,000 BCE
Animals, geometric signs, pictographs (elementary sketches to represent things), ideographs (elementary sketches to represent ideas)
Evolution to writing -- multiple pictures to represent sentence structure and human communication
2800 BCE - left to right, top to bottom format
Sharp stylus to triangle-shaped led to cuneiform writing
In the beginning...
this took us about 40,000 years
Egyptian Hieroglyphics
used by priests, civil officials
Rosetta Stone proved hieroglyphics were writing
This is the man responsible for Papyrus, arguably the second-worst font in the world.
These are the people responsible for Papyrus, the paper-like substance made from plants
1800 BC - Chinese Calligraphy
800 BC - Greek alphabet
700 BC - Roman or Latin alphabet
105 AD - first "paper" - natural substances wet and beaten to pulp
1040 AD - Movable Type - first used in Asian cultures
Writing and Alphabets
Illustrated manuscripts - both words and pictures used to illustrate
Typography - printing through the use of independent, movable and reusable bits of metal
Gutenberg printer - around 1450
42-line form, 180 copies were made, about 60 still exist
Printing spread through Europe during the 15th century
Decline of illiteracy, rise of learning, education
Formulation of own interpretations rather than relying on interpretations of religious leaders, led to Reformation
Development of printing in Italy, Venice
Wildflowers and vines developed within letterform
Title page, page numbers
Censorship in the 1500s of "Protestant propaganda"
Renaissance Graphic Design
Dawning of Typography
Quality of printing increased due to mathematical processes
John Baskerville (1706-1775) - wide margins, liberal use of space, smooth, glossy paper, transitional between Old Stype and Modern design
Giambattista Bodoni (1740-1819) - more mathematical, geometric appearance, thin strokes, straight hairline serifs
Francoise Ambroise Didot (1730-1840) - both thin and fat styles, condensed and expanded font styles
Typeface Periods
Typography in the Industrial Age
French and American Revolutions led to greater public education and literacy
Improvements to printing processes, converted to high-speed printing operation, steam-powered
Improvements to paper-making
Introduction of Linotype: typewriter-like keys, released a matrix that was put in a line and filled with melted lead
Cast slug bearing raised type in 1886
Cost of newspapers reduced, pages increased, circulations increased
Periodicals Saturday Evening Post and Colliers
Led to age of mass communication
Depth of shading and perspective, outlines, reversing
Typography in the Industrial Age
Joseph Niepce: first image of nature by light, not by hand (1826)
Process perfected by Louis Jacques Daguerre (1839)
Daguerreotypes - image on copper plate, exposed to chemicals and light, very sensitive process
Improved by Englishman Henry Fox Talbot, who used negatives or reversed prints to make positives
Early images were woodblock imprints
Halftone and color separation - changed visual appearance of printed page
Images in Print
Doyle Dane Bembach - talk intelligently to consumers / witty humor and catchy slogans as opposed to the "hard sell"
1950 - Fusion of word and image
Letterforms as images, visual properties of words or their organization in space
Corporate Identity and Visual Symbols - advertising, communications, packaging, vehicles, signage, visual identification system
Changes in Advertising
Modern Imagery
MTV - Logo design was changeable, multiple forms, different than previous idea or identity, animation, illustration, photography
Conceptual imagery in contrast to photography to evoke emotion, expression of our time, iconic and symbolic, rather than narrative
Digital Revolution
Removed specialist nature of graphic design, greater control over design and production process
Growth of cable and satellite - more options
Apple, Adobe, and Aldus
1984, 1st generation Macintosh, bitmapped graphics, represented by pixels, mouse
Digital Revolution
Early fonts dictated by matrix of dots on early monitors

PostScript, not bitmapped, but electronic information on how to draw, generated as outlines and then filled
Aldus Pagemaker - first layout program for personal computer
1990 Macintosh II - color, increase in companies doing graphic design, increase in untrained also
QuarkXpress and Photoshop/Illustrator, later InDesign
Interactive Media and Internet
Problems with HTML and browsers
Fear of a decline in design
Ability to add multimedia, animation, instant updating, access, now interactivity
Nature of authorship, professional designers, others designing within their profession, those who do it as a hobby, etc.
Mobile devices changing design - app culture, icons, emoji
Digital Revolution
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