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Transcript of Sex Tourism
BSc 2 Critically assess
the growth and impact of
sex tourism on
two selected destinations Is Sex + Tourism
always equal to sex tourism? Aim and Objectives
Motivators of sex tourism
Case study analysis
References Table of content To analyze the positive and negative impacts on sex tourism. Aim and Objectives Aim: Critically assess the growth and impact of sex tourism on two selected destinations. Objectives: To investigate the nature and motivators of sex tourism. To understand the growth of sex tourism from the case studies. Trips organized from within the tourism sector, or from outside this sector but using its structures and networks, with the primary purpose of effecting a commercial sexual relationship by the tourist with residents at the destination. Definitions (UNWTO, 2013) (sex tourism, 2009, DeLamater, 1989) "Sexual Services" Popular Destinations
For Men Prostitution Pleasure Strip Clubs Sex tourism involves travel across national or international borders in order to take part in a non-reproductive sexual encounter. The sexual encounter may be with an adult or minor, man, women, transsexual or transvestite. It must involve an exchange of money or material goods for a sexual act. Definitions (Ward, 2010, Opperman, 1998) "Grey Term"
Not a Synonym of Prostitution Amsterdam (BBC, 2010) Bangkok (BBC, 2010) Pattaya (BBC, 2010) Brazil (BBC, 2010) (sex tourism, 2009; DeLameter, 1989; Bauer and McKercher, 2003 ) "Spiritual Fulfillment" Popular Destinations
For Women Romance Love Lust (World Travel Guide, 2013) Caribbean Italy (World Travel Guide, 2013) Greece (World Travel Guide, 2013) (BBC, 2007) Statistics (BusinessInsider, 2012) Statistics To categorize Push and Pull factors Workshop Physical needs
Unmet sexual needs
Modernity Push factors (Tepanon, 2006) Changes in society
Changes in gender roles
Schedulization and Routinization
State control Byproduct Pull factors Physical Gains Tangible Attributes Psychological Gains Sense of belonging
Freedom and excitement
Power Reestablishment Create more ‘jobs’ Positive impacts Brings prosperity and economic wealth to people and the country Increase tourist arrivals Gains popularity (Tepanon, 2006) Health risks
Negative country image
Child sexual exploitation
Segregation between tourists and locals
Environmental disturbances Negative impacts 70% of male tourists in Thailand are sex tourists
( around 4,560,000 male tourists) Thailand Case study Government - way to earn foreign exchange and thus boost their economy. No 1 - source of export revenues by the end of 1980s Promote tourism merely – flourishing sex industry “Mr. Macho” Who are the sex tourists? "Mr. Professional” “Mr. Average“ Advertisements
Negative comments Leakage Fulfillment
Job Opportunities Tax
Indirectly support Stakeholders towards sex tourism Intermediaries Government Media Tourists Locals Sex Tourism Outsiders Promotions
Money History development
Booming Thai economy positively
Cultural and financial reasons
High level of poverty
High income to support family and living
$5 million in 1967 to $20 million in 1970.
Around 60% Thailand’s national income comes from sex tourism Growth Create High income
Damaged image of Thailand
Affected Thai economy positively,
“Thai Economic Miracle”
Child prostitutes issues
High international migration rate
Violation of life, liberty and security Impacts The majority of people have heard about Amsterdam’s Red Light District well before their visit. Leave nothing to the imagination, most stereotypes about this area are true. Amstersdam (iamsterdam, 2013) Sex capital of the world
Existed for several centuries
Netherlands – top destination for victims of human trafficking and rising
Red Light District – part of Amsterdam’s brand equity and values
Image – associated with liberal attitude towards soft drugs and prostitution
Red Light District – legal prostitution Case study Amsterdam Sex industry - brings 5 % of Netherland’s GDP
Number of prostitutes is around 25,000 – 30,000
Mostly comes from Central and Eastern Europe Statistics (TSVC, 2012) Estimated to take 10 years
Investment – 800 million euros
Highly slash the Red Light District and coffee shops in Amsterdam
Only permit prostitution in two areas 1012 Project (Iamexpat, 2012, Chinadaily, 2012 ,Iamsterdam, 2012) Long term goal – decrease criminal structure, attracting new investors and tourists The Microenvironment The Company
Prostitutes, people inside the brothels, marketers
Germany, Belgium, Catalonia (close to the French border)
Prostitutes from Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia
Red Light District tours and packages, Amsterdam.info
Tourists, people that spend money within Red Light District
Create different types and services of packages to people which have interest (Justmeans, 2010; RedLightDistrictTours, 2013) The Microenvironment (Kotler et al. 2010) The macroenvironment Competitive forces
Age - between 21 and 30 years old (29%)
Other age (12% - 16%) , (5% -18%) in 2007
Visitor expenditure is even more higher nowadays
Especially American, British and Chinese
Renowned for its “red light district” culture. Long history founded
Various social medias for example, youtube, twitter, and facebook
Government’s awareness arisen and “Project 1012” begins
Prostitute legalization, society basic values and behaviors. (Iamsterdam, 2012) The Macroenvironment More than 100 brothels – closed – 2008, reduced by 40 %
Number of brothels decreased, but, travel keep increasing
Try to transform into housing or studio functions
Demands – international and domestic, leisure and business, sex tourism not main purpose, subset only
Marketing strategies, business forms and wider economic structures Growth Boost the economy by attracting tourists
Collecting taxes from brothels
Lack of control – dirty based
Criminal element fester
Trash culture Impacts (Iamexpat, 2012, Yeoman, 2008) Discussion Time To discuss with your groupmates by
fitting in as the government of Amsterdam to decide
what policy or plan that you will succeed to solve the problems of Red Light District. Countries just focus on sex trade may begin to disappear
Tourists will be more careful with choosing different destinations regarding health issues due to social media
Android prostitutes in 2050 Future Trends (Yeoman and Mars, 2011, Page and Connell, 2005 ) Old and controversial issue
No clear definition
Increasingly complex with the growth of female and gay sex tourism and the phenomenon of child sex abuse tourism
Create much impacts (health, crime, society)
Sex tourism – seems to continue and may even grow in foreseeable future Conclusions Strict policies, plans and laws
Access to education
Promote more morality and environmental sustainability
Government be aware of fighting against the brothels Recommendations References Amsterdam.info. (2013). Red Light District Amsterdam. Available from: http://www.amsterdam.info/ [Accessed on 31/03/13].
Bangkok Post. (2013). Thailand is tourism’s own worst enemy. Available from: http://www.bangkokpost.com/opinion/ [Accessed on 31/03/13].
Bauer, T.C. and McKercher, B. (2003). Sex and Tourism: Journeys of Romance, Love, and Lust. United States: The Haworth Hospitality Press.
BBC. (2007). UN highlights human trafficking. United Kingdom. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/. [Accessed on 01/04/13].
BBC. (2010). Brazil’s sex tourism boom. United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ [[Accessed on 01/04/13].
Brents, B. and Hausbeck, K. (2007). Marketing sex: US legal brothels and late capitalist consumption, Sexualities, 10(4),425–439.
Businessinsider. (2012). There Are 42 Million Prostitutes In The World, And Here’s Where They Live. Available from: http://articles.businessinsider.com/ [Accessed on 24/03/13].
Chinadaily. (2012). Amsterdam’s Red Light District en route to freshness. Available from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/ [Accessed on 23/03/13].
DeLamater, J. (1989).The social control of human sexuality. The Societal and Interpersonal Context. Norwood, 30–62.
Gehrels, C., Munster,O., Pen, M., Prins, M., Thevent, J. (2004). Choosing Amsterdam. Available from: http://www.amsterdam.nl/ [Accessed on 01/04/13].
Iamexpat. (2012). Amsterdam’s Project 1012: Regeneration or regression? Available from: http://www.iamexpat.nl/ [Accessed 25/03/13].
Iamsterdam. (2012). Culture becoming increasingly important to visitors to Amsterdam. Available from: http://www.iamsterdam.com/ [Accessed on 24/03/13].
Iamsterdam. (2013). 1012 under construction. Available from: http://www.iamsterdam.com/ [Accessed on 27/03/13].
Justmeans. (2010). Amsterdam Travel: Sex Tourism and Human Trafficking. Available from: http://www.justmeans.com/ [Accessed on 27/03/13].
Kavaratzis, M. and Ashworth, G. (2006). Changing the tide: the campaign to re-brand Amsterdam. University of Groningen. Available from: www-sre.wu-wien.ac.at/ [Accessed on 29/03/13]. References
Kinsey, K. (1998). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Kotler, P., Bowen, J.T., Makens, J.C. (2010). Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. 5th ed. United States: Pearson.
Opperman, M. (1998). Sex Tourism and Prostitution: Aspects of Leisure, Recreation and work. United States: Cognizant Communication Corp.
Page, S.J. and Connell. J. (2005). Tourism A Modern Synthesis. 3rd ed. United Kingdom. South-Western Cengage Learning.
Plri. (2012). Sex Worker’s Research on Anti trafficking in Thailand. Available from: http://www.plri.org/ [Accessed on 25/03/13].
Pulitzercenter.org. (2009). Local Thai NGOs discuss efforts to end commercial sexual exploitation. Available from: http://pulitzercenter.org/ [Accessed on 01/04/13].
RedLightDistrictTours. (2013). Tours For All. Available from: http://www.redlightdistricttours.com/ [Accessed on 23/03/13].
Sex Tourism. (2009). Best Sex Tourism Destinations. Available from: http://www.sextourism.net/ [Accessed on 23/03/13].
Studymode. (2010). Sex and Drug Tourism in Amsterdam. Available from: http://www.studymode.com/ [Accessed on 01/04/13].
Tepanon, Y. (2006). Exploring the Minds of Sex Tourists: The Psychological Motivation of Liminal People. (Thesis). Doctor. Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Tourthaitour. (2012). Sex tourism in Thailand. Available from: http://tourthaitour.wordpress.com/ [Accessed on 24/03/13].
TSVC. (2012). Sex Tourism In Amsterdam. United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.tsvc.lincoln.ac.uk/ [Accessed on 01/04/13].
UNDOC. (2009). Trafficking in persons, Analysis in Europe. Available from: http://www.unodc.org. [Accessed on 31/03/13].
UNWTO. (2013). UNWTO statement on the Prevention of Organized Sex Tourism. Available from: http://ethics.unwto.org/ [Accessed on 22/03/13].
Ward, J.M. (2010). Rationalizing Sexual Tourism: How Some Countries Benefit from Selling Sex. Sexual Tourism, 2 (4). Available from: http://www.studentpulse.com/ [Accessed on 24/03/13]. References Worldtravelguide. (2013). Travel Deals. Available from: http://www.worldtravelguide.net/ [Accessed on 22/03/13].
Wouk.org. (unknown). Sex Tourism in Thailand. Available from: http://www.worldoutreach.org.uk/ [Accessed on 25/03/13].
Yeoman, I.(2008). Tomorrows Tourists: Scenarios & Trends. Oxford: Elsevier.
Yeoman, I. and Mars, M. (2011). Robots, men and sex tourism. Futures. 44 (2012). 365-371. (pulitzercenter.org, 2009; Wouk.org, unknown) (Wouk.org, unknown) (Bangkok Post, 2012) (plri, 2012, Tourthaitour, 2012) (Yeoman, 2008, UNDOC, 2009, Gehrels et al., 2004, Kavaratzis and Ashworth, 2006, Amsterdam.info, 2013) (Kotler et al., 2010) (Brents and Hausbeck, 2007, Studymode, 2010, chinadaily, 2012)