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History of Adventure Programming

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Sarah Burnett-Wolle

on 30 July 2013

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Transcript of History of Adventure Programming

TRC 201
History of Adventure Programming - Chapter 3
Goals
1.Understand important trends on American's views of wilderness including the people and events that influenced them.

2.Understand the development of adventure programming
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Its average interval between eruptions is about 91 minutes, varying from 65 - 92 minutes. An eruption lasts 1 1/2 to 5 minutes, expels 3,700 - 8,400 gallons (14,000 - 32,000 liters) of boiling water, and reaches heights of 106 - 184 feet (30 - 55m).
http://www.nps.gov/features/yell/live/oflive.htm
1860s
1820s
"We did not think of the great open plains, the beautiful rolling hills, and winding streams with tangled growth, as 'wild.' Only to the white man was nature a "wilderness" and only to him was the land 'infested' with 'wild' animals and 'savage' people." Chief [Luther] Standing Bear, Land of the Spotted Eagle (1933), p. xix.
1890s
Emerson
Thoreau
#16 Roosevelt & Muir at Yosemite
Advocated for Preservation
# 7 Transcendentalism -
Created literature (essays, novels, philosophy, poetry) and art that was clearly different from European nations
Struggled to define spirituality and religion
Most became involved as well in social reform movements, especially anti-slavery and women's rights
http://www.transcendentalists.com/what.htm
1900s
1910s
1920s
1940s
1950s
1930s
#2 Deforestation is as old as civilization.
There used to be great cedar forests in the Middle East around Lebanon, Syria and Turkey.
But ancient civilizations such as the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Persians, Assyrians and Babylonians decimated their forests.
The same thing happened to the Sahara desert.

http://www.deep-ecology-hub.com/rainforest-deforestation.html
Scouting -
Started in England and came to the US in 1910
In response to the poor physical condition of young men in the army, sought to revitalize manhood
Used games and Native American skills to teach physical skills and mental ability, character-related values such as teamwork, sportsmanship, and pride in accomplishment
Most dominant youth movement of the 1900s. Other scouting groups include: Girl Guides, Camp Fire Girls, Girl Scouts of America, and Y-Indian Guides
http://www.bsatroop780.org/history/general.html
# 6, 8 Niagara Falls
#17 Magazine editor George Bird Grinnell began a crusade to stop what he called "The Park Grab."
#4, 9 Muir
#18 Roosevelt & Pinchot
Advocated for Conservation
“The greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time”
#13 Teddy Roosevelt & Hunting
Aldo Leopold - Land Ethic
"A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise. "(p.262)

http://gargravarr.cc.utexas.edu/chrisj/leopold-quotes.html
"For The Lord's portion is His people, Jacob His allotted heritage. He found him in a desert land, and in the howling waste of the wilderness; He encircled him, He cared for him, He kept him as the apple of His eye." (Deuteronomy 32:9-10 RSV)
Kurt Hahn - grandparent of adventure programming
At his school (Salem), the curriculum emphasized personal responsibility, equality, social justice, respect, and service to the community.
Ships sailing from the safety of the harbor into the open seas
First school for youth in Wales
Declines - Fitness, initiative & enterprise, memory & imagination, skill & care, self-discipline, compassion
Antidotes - Fitness Training, Expeditions, Projects, Rescue Service
Used - orienteering, search & rescue, athletics, sailing small-boats, ocean and mountain expeditions, obstacle-courses, service
"less a training for the sea than through the sea, and so benefit all walks of life"
1960s
1970s
1st Outward Bound
School in the US
National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLEs) established
Skills

http://www.nols.edu/courses/
Project Adventure (PA) spins off of Outward Bound
Outdoor Education - PE, science, biology, social studies, history, drama, English
Adventure Education - counseling

http://www.pa.org/
1980s
Wilderness Education Association (WEA) established
Outdoor Leadership
http://www.weainfo.org/curriculum/
Association for Experiential Education (AEE)
Professional Organization
Publishes the Journal of Experiential Education
English academic publication - Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership
http://www.aee.org/
Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)
Employs many young men during the depression
Builds park infrastructure across the country
Poor farming techniques lead to the Dust Bowl in southwest
#3 Land Rush and Railroads
#1, 8 Clear cutting
Initially thought of as a win win, earning money by creating farming land and selling trees
Created a "Timber Famine"
#5 Rumors Confirmed
#11 Tourism
#15 Damage & law enforcement in the National Parks
Begin saving the forests
#19, 20 Public forests expanded
Decimated farm land and clear cut in the east became public land
#21 Roosevelt @ Sequoia
#8 Lincoln signed the 1st bill to save land based on its unique beauty
#10 Yellowstone - 1st National Park
The Value of Wilderness Timeline
Fundamental Trends
Evil is found in the wilderness ---> Spiritual renewal found in the wilderness
Land privately held ---> Land publicly held
Wilderness is something to eradicate ---> Wilderness is something to be conserved or preserved
Trees are financially beneficial when they are cut ---> Trees are financially beneficial when they are not cut
Killing all of the large game animals is OK ---> Killing all of the large game animals is not OK
Wilderness is dangerous ---> Wilderness is healing
Note that I have arranged negative views/treatment of wilderness under the timeline and positive views/treatment above the timeline. There is a general trend away from negative to positive views/treatment of wilderness.
1850s
The "Discovery" of Yosemite
Full transcript