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Copy of Text Structure

a discussion on different text structures and the graphic organizers that go with each step.

Samantha Feeser

on 8 December 2011

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Transcript of Copy of Text Structure

TEXT STRUCTURE Writers use different text structures to build their ideas Each text structure communicates ideas in a different way
Text structures help
the reader ORGANIZE what they are reading by organizing TEXT in a particular way Chronological order / Sequence Types of Text Structures
Compare & Contrast
Cause & Effect
Problem & Solution
Description PURPOSE Authors use chronological order to explain how things happen in order.
Chronological order is also called sequence or time order Chronological Clue words You will know that you are reading a text in chronological order because you will see words like first, next, second, later, then, and finally.
In order to better understand Chronological Order you might use a GRAPHIC ORGANIZER. Use a timeline to organize the information in the following paragraph. A butterfly makes a lot of changes in its life. First, a male and a female mate. Next the female lays eggs. Then the eggs hatch into little caterpillars. After shedding its skin several times, the caterpillar forms a chrysalis.
Compare & Contrast Purpose:Suppose an author wanted to explain how these two objects are similar and different
Chronological order wouldn’t work---there is no order of events
The author would need to use compare and contrast
The reader might see words like resemble, different from, same as, like, unlike, both and alike When we are comparing and contrasting a piece of text, we often use a VENN DIAGRAM. A pencil and a pen are alike in most ways. They both are long and thin. Both are writing tools to use on paper. Both writing tools cost very little. Pencil marks can be erased because they are made with graphite. Most pen marks cannot be erased, because they are made with ink. Always choose to use a pencil when you think you might want to erase what you write. Use a pen when you write an important paper, so no one can erase it.
Use a venn diagram to discover the simularities/differences
Cause & Effect Sometimes, a writer will want to explain how one event leads to another.
This kind of text structure is called cause and effect
When authors write paragraphs to show causes and effects, they use words like therefore, as a result, consequently, because, so, since, the reason for, and even sometimes cause and effect.
Can you find the clue words? The night’s snowstorm had many effects. People were out shoveling snow from their sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice. Snow plows drove down every street. Children were the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused school to be cancelled!
What is the cause & the effect? Here is what a Cause & Effect Graphic Organizer might look like: Problem & Solution Sometimes, an author will want to explain a problem, and then show one or more solutions
This kind of text structure is called problem and solution
Often, authors will signal problem and solution structure with clue words like problem and solution, just like in the last paragraph
Sometimes you will see statements like the problem is, the question is, one reason, a solution
Sometimes, authors will use related words
Synonyms for PROBLEM include difficulty, struggle, uncertainty, worry, threat, and trouble
Synonyms for SOLUTION include possibility, hope, bright spot, answer, and future
One way you can organize your thoughts during the reading is to identify the problem an solution. Description /
Main Idea Most paragraphs that we write in school can be called main idea, description, or statement and support paragraphs
The reader might see words like for example, to begin with and most importantly
In order to sneek out descritive details about a subject, a person might need a idea web to organize a reader's thoughts Use a graphic organizer to look for the topic & supporting facts. The pond was a beautiful place to visit. The falling leaves, all different colors, decorated the surface of the water. At the edges of the pond, small wildflowers grew. The golden forest glowed faintly in the distance The Chesapeake Bay faces an uncertain future. Issues such as pesticides, too many nutrients, and habitat loss all threaten the Bay’s water quality and animal life. However, scientists are hopeful that the future may be brighter. If everyone in the Chesapeake Bay watershed works together, solutions may be found.
Use your knowledge of graphic organizers organizer, to compele
Find the problem & solution in the text.
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