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Psychological Projective Assessment Measures

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J Brunner

on 8 March 2016

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Transcript of Psychological Projective Assessment Measures

Introduction to Psychological
Projective Measures

Dr. Sandra Evarrs
Sentence
Completions

Projective Drawings
Rorschach
Test

Thematic
Apperception
Tests
Measures often administered in conjunction with a Projective Battery
What Are
"Projective" Measures?

Clinical
Interview

History of
Sentence Completions
Children
Apperception Test (CAT)
Roberts
Apperception Test
House Tree Person
Draw A Person Test
Kinetic Family
Drawing Test
HTP Basics
HOUSE
DRAWING
TREE DRAWING
PERSON DRAWING
Roof:
represents fantasy and intellectual area

Shutters closed:

defensive and withdrawn

Smoke from chimney:
(In great profusion)
considerable inner tension

Transparent (“glass box”):

symbolizes feeling
of being watched or desires to exhibit self

Trees:

frequently represent specific persons,
if tree seems to shelter house, strong needs for dependence and / or feelings of parental dominance are suggested
H.T.P. House
Windows:

Absence of or Absent from ground

floor: hostility, withdrawal

Perspective:
Above Subject (worm’s eye view): feeling of either rejection from home or of striving towards a home or home situation
Below subject (bird’s eye view): rejection of drawn house
H.T.P. House
Clouds
– generalized anxiety
Paper-Basing
– generalized insecurity
Paper-Chopping
– (left, right, top, bottom)
Paper-Siding
– Implies space constriction with
heightened sensitivity and strong suggestion of aggressive-reactive tendancies
Paper-Topping
– tendency toward fixation on
thinking and fantasy as sources of satisfaction
H.T.P. General Interpretations:
Sun
– symbol of authoritative figure; often
seen as source of power and/or warmth; frequency identified as father or mother

Weather –
subject’s feeling of the environment

Redrawing without erasure of original

negativistic reaction

Shading –
anxiety
H.T.P. General Interpretations:
Tree represents
subconscious picture of self psychologically, ego

Roots:
entering ground, overemphasis upon, great
need to maintain grasp of reality, insecurity

Scars:
physical experience regarded traumatically

Shadow:
Anxiety-binding factor, unsatisfying
relationship of psychological past with psychological present
H.T.P. Tree
Sun: (large)
acute awareness of relationship to authority figure

Setting Sun:
feelings of depression

Groundline:
Arc-like hill
When tree is small, maternal dependence with feelings of isolation and hopelessness indicated
When tree is rugged and large, primary implications is strong need for dominance and exhibitionism
H.T.P. Tree
Size of tree:
feeling of stature in psychological field

Small tree:
feels inferior and inadequate, desire to withdraw

Trunk:

feeling of basic power
Overly large:

feeling of environment constriction
with tendency to act aggresively

Tiny:

feelings of basic inadequacy and ineptness

Very Slender, with large branch structures:
precarious personality balance because of over-striving for satisfaction
H.T.P. Tree
Arms:
Tools to control or change environment
Folded across chest:
suspicious, hostile
attitudes
Held behind back:

reluctance to meet
people halfway, need to control expression of aggressive, hostile drives
Thin:
feelings of weakness and futility
of striving
H.T.P. Person
Lawrence Frank, 1939
Projective Methods for the Study of Personality

(1st Systematic Statement on Projective Testing)

"When people try to understand vague or ambiguous unstructured stimuli, the interpretation they produce reflects their needs, feelings, experience, prior conditioning, & thought processes"
The Projective
Hypothesis
* All responses reflect some combination of the
demands of the situation
and the respondent’s
personality
.

* For
unstructured stimuli,
people provide a structure consistent with their own needs, conflicts and impulses.

* When the demands of the situation are ambiguous, the test taker will “
project
” his own thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and behaviors, onto the stimuli.
The Projective Hypothesis
The difficulty is answering:
Which particular needs, feelings, experience, prior conditioning, thought processes' are reflected?

Projective tests can draw equally upon the:

imagined and real
conscious and unconscious
recent and old
important and the trivial
revealing and the obvious

The Projective Problem


People tend to
over-estimate
the frequency of correlations they believe in (i.e. of associations)


"senses are fallible…clinical judgments must be checked continually against objective measures"

What is the
Rorschach?
Rorschach
History
Rorschach
Administration
Rorschach
Scoring
The stimuli were generated by dropping ink onto a card and folding it

They are not, however, random: the ten cards in the current test were hand-selected out of thousands that Rorschach generated

Ten blots – 5 black/white, 2 red/gray (II & III) and 3 color (VIII – X) – Figure 16-1 is Card I
What is the Rorschach?
The earliest use of inkblots as projective surfaces was J. Kerner's (1857)

He was the first to claim that some people make idiosyncratic or revealing interpretations

In 1896, Alfred Binet suggested that inkblots might be used to assess personality (not psychopathology)
Rorschach History
Herman Rorschach, a Swiss psychiatrist, was the first to suggest (1911) the use of inkblot responses as a diagnostic instrument

In 1921 he published his book on the test, Psychodiagnostik (and soon thereafter died, age 38)
Rorschach History
Rorschach's test was not well-received, attracting little notice until...
David Levy brought it to the United States
His student, Samuel Beck, popularized its use here, writing several papers and books on it starting with Configurational Tendencies in Rorschach Responses (1933)
Several other early users also published work on the Rorschach

Several offered their own system of administration, scoring, and interpretation, leading to later problems in standardization
Rorschach's History
The test is usually administered with as little instruction and information as possible

The tester asks 'What might this be?' and gives no clues or restrictions on what is expected as a response

Anxious subjects often do ask questions, and vague answers are offered

Some advocate sitting beside the subject to avoid giving clues by facial expression

If only one response is given, some hint to find more may be offered: "Some people see more than one thing.“
The orientation of the card and subject RT is recorded
Administering the Rorschach
The cards are shown twice
The first time responses are obtained - free association phase
The second time they are elaborated – inquiry phase
The test administrator asks about:

i.) Location: Where did the subject see each item?
A location chart is used to mark location
W = whole; D = Common detail; Dd = Unusual detail; DW = Confabulatory response

i
i.) Determinant: What determined the response?
Form (F)?
Perceived movement? Human (M); Animal (FM); Inanimate (m)
Color (C); shading (T = texture)
Administering the Rorschach
The test administrator asks about:

iii.) Form quality: How well-matched is the response to the blot?
F+ = good match; F = match; F- = poor match
iv.) Content: What was seen?
Human (H); animal (A); nature (N)?

The test administrator also scores popularity/originality: How frequently is the percept seen?
Administering the Rorschach

Some quantitative information is obtained: i.e. percent of W (whole), D (common detail), Dd (usual detail) , and DW (confabulated detail) responses (Location responses)

Deviation from norms can mean an invalid protocol, or brain damage, or emotional problems, or a low mental age (or just an original person)

These quantitative measures can be validated
i.e. # of W responses has been linked to general intelligence (r = 0.4); Movement responses are said to suggest strong impulses or high motor activity; DW (confabulatory) responses are taken as signs of a disordered state; low response rate is associated with mental retardation, depression, and defensiveness
Alas, many attempts to validate signs are unclear
Often there is fail to replicate, or the findings contradict expert claims
Scoring the Rorschach
Aspects of the blot that are scored:
How common is the response?
What is the form quality of the response?
Where in the blot is the response seen?
Does the respondent mention colors?
How detailed vs. global is the response?
Are humans mentioned?
Are humans seen as cooperating?
Special scores: confabulation, deviant verbalization, etc.
Rorschach: What is scored?
Most scoring is qualitative: i.e. analyzing content

There are no hard and fast rules
All but the most ardent proponents suggest that the protocol be analyzed in the context of other tests results and clinical information
Scoring the Rorschach
Exner’s Comprehensive System – Developed in 1974
(Beck Scoring System and the Klopfer Method precursers to Exner)

location, developmental quality, Z sum, determinants: form (quality), movement, color (chromatic/achromatic), texture, dimensionality, diffuse shading, reflection and pairs (egocentrism), popular responses

Uses norms for five groups: nonpatient, outpatient nonpsychotic, inpatient character problem, inpatient depressive, inpatient schizophrenic
Scoring the Rorschach: Exner & Rorschach Performance Assessment System® (R-PAS®)
Developed during the 1930s by the American psychologist
Henry A. Murray
and psychoanalyst
Christiana D. Morgan
at the Harvard Clinic at Harvard University

Idea for the TAT emerged from a question asked by one of Murray's undergraduate students, Cecilia Roberts.
She reported that when her son was ill, he spent the day making up stories about images in magazines and she asked Murray if pictures could be employed in a clinical setting to explore the underlying dynamics of personality.
Thematic Apperception Test
Scoring Elements:
Hero
Press (environmental forces)
Needs (forces from the hero)
Themes (interact with press/needs)
Outcomes

Other Interpretation Concepts:
* Congruence with picture stimuli
* Conformity with directions
* Distance
* Conflict
* Literal Story Content
*
Primary tool for initially gathering
information

* Nondirective interviewing
Used to obtain background on the child in terms of developmental history, social history, work history, etc.
*
Also used to identify client’s major
complaints, when those complaints occur,
and what has been helpful in the past.
Clinical Interviewing
* Observing the patient’s behavior, affect, attitude, cognitive style, etc. while interviewing

*Yields a great deal of information, but is vulnerable to many types of bias. +
Clinical Interviewing
Myers-Briggs

MMPI-2RF
&
MMPI-A
Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory
MMPI Scales – Validity Scales
MMPI Scales
MMPI Scales

Interpersonal Scales

FML - Family Problems
IPP - Interpersonal Passivity
SAV - Social Avoidance
SHY - Shyness
DSF - Disaffiliativeness
MMPI Scales
Cons
* Inadequate
validity
for some projective
tests - due to interpretation
*Many may be unreliable due to

interpretation error
, with the exception of
the Rorschach Exner system and some TAT
methods

Pros
* Increasingly reliable and norm-referenced
due to studies and revised norming
* Many psychologists use projectives as a

technique
” rather than a test
* Can give valuable info about client
* Can be useful for evaluating
impression

management
* Overall
easy
to use and administer
Are Projective Tests Worthwhile
Psychologist must Consider:

* Test-retest reliability
* Internal Consistency
* Inter-rater reliability
* Predictive validity

Concerns:

*
Over-identification of pathology
(note your HTP pictures)
*
Inadequate normative samples
in some
specialized populations
*May not be appropriate for

culturally/ethnically diverse populations
Projectives: Should They Be Used?

* Time available to assess individual problems is
finite
, therefore assessments for given problem should be done for highest likelihood of effective remediation

* The process of assessment must have
treatment utility
(Tilly, Reschly, Grimes, 2008)
Projectives: Should They Be Used?
Use psychometrically valid instruments
Use them for the purposes for which they have been validated
Use assessments that directly inform intervention
Use instruments that are sensitive to incremental change over time
Projective Measures: As Such,We Need to. . .
TAT
Scoring & Interpretation
Developed originally by Florence Goodenough in 1926, this test was first known as the Goodenough Draw-A-Man test.

To evaluate intelligence, the test administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: QSS (Quantitative Scoring System).

Analyzes fourteen different aspects of the drawings (such as specific body parts and clothing) for various criteria, including
presence
absence
detail
proportion
64 scoring items for each drawing
separate standard score is recorded for each drawing, and a total score for all three
Downward extension of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Age Range: 3-10

Available in Color or Black & White

CAT measures aspects of personality, including level of reality testing and judgment, control and regulation of drives, and degree of autonomy.

Composed of 10 drawings of animals.

Based on the theory that children identify more readily with animal figures than human figures.
Presentations of the
beginning of sentences
which then requests that the subjects complete the sentence any way they would like.

Hypothesis:

SCs will
reveal more about thoughts, fantasies, and
emotional conflicts
than testing with direct questions.

Developed to be as
vague as possible
so the
most amount of projection as possible can occur
.

For example, a sentence beginning with
The worst thing about growing old…
is not going to provide as much opportunity for a response as
Other people….

Original version of the test was developed in 1950 by Rotter and Rafferty

Not intended to give a full view of personality, but more of a starting point for clinicians to take direction from.

Three forms at different levels including:
High School
College
Adult

The test is scored on a seven point scale with answers being tagged and rated as:
Conflict
(pessimism, hostility, hopelessness)
Neutral
(stereotypes, catchphrases, cliches)
Positive
(humor, optimism, acceptance)

15 to 35 minutes to complete



*
Hermann Ebbinghaus
invented the method in 1879 to test the
mental ability
of school children in Germany. He used his test to study his interest in the development intellectual capacity and reasoning ability in children (Hersen, 2003).
*C
arl Jung
was the first to evaluate if sentence completions could be used for
personality
assessment.
Inner notions could be analyzed through people’s associations of different words
He would say a list of words to the person being tested and with each word, the client would be asked to say the first thing that came to their mind (Hersen, 2003).
Projective Debate
Sample MMPI Profile
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-2 (MMPI®-2)
& the MMPI-A Adolescent
The MMPI-2 instrument is the most widely used and widely researched test of adult and adolescent psychopathology.

Used by clinicians to assist with the
diagnosis of mental disorders
and the selection of appropriate treatment methods.

*
Length: 384
True-False items, MMPI-A: 478

*
Ages:
18 years and older, MMPI-A: 14-18

*
Administration Time:
60-90 minutes

*
Norm Group:
Nationally representative community sample of adult men and women (1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.)


Concerns Regarding
Interpretations of Projective Measures
psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions

These preferences were extrapolated from the typological theories proposed by Carl Gustav Jung and first published in his 1921 book Psychological Types

Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world:
sensation
intuition
feeling
thinking
(One of these four functions is
dominant most of the time.)
Myers Briggs Personality Types
What Are Sentence Completions?
Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank
Published in 1973

Not all are (though all may be) seen by everyone:

30 grayscale pictures + one blank for elicitation of stories – each contain a dramatic event or critical situation

11 for adult males/females
7 adult males & boys (BM)
7 adult females & girls (GF)
1 each for adult males (12M)
adult females (12F)
children of either sex (12BG)
male child (13B)
female child (13G)
blank (16)

Based on Murray's (1938)
theory of 28 social needs
(sex, affiliation, dominance, achievement etc.)
TAT Cards
Children's Apperception Test, CAT
Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT)
Purpose:
Provides a measure of the child's social understanding as expressed in free narrative, reflecting both developmental and clinical concerns

Age Range:
6 to 18 years

Administration Time:
30 to 40 minutes to administer and score

27 Cards:
Many Cards have two forms – one portraying a girl, one portraying a boy. Depicts interpersonal situations that could occur in a child’s real life Card sets offer Caucasion and Black Children

Format:
Storytelling in response to stimulus pictures

Norms
Grouped by age and sex, based on a sample of 1,000 children and adolescents, representative in terms of geographic region, gender, ethnicity, and parental education

Administration:
“I have a number of pictures I am going to show you one at a time. I want you to make up a story about each picture. Please tell me what is happening in the picture, what led up to this scene, and how the story ends. Tell me what the people are talking about and feeling. Use your imagination and remember that there are no right or wrong answers for the picture.”
Assists the examiner in determining how well the child:
reads social cues
recognizes and solves interpersonal problems
copes with difficulties
makes use of social and emotional resources

The test focuses on the child's social understanding as expressed in free narrative, reflecting both developmental and clinical concerns.

Available in three parallel sets--White children, Black children, and one depicting Hispanic children
R.A.T.
DAP
To assess the test-taker for emotional problems, the administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: SPED (Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance) to score the drawings.

This system is composed of two types of criteria.
eight dimensions of each drawing are evaluated against norms for the child's age group.
47 different items are considered for each drawing

The purpose of the test is to assist professionals in inferring children's cognitive developmental levels with little or no influence of other factors such as language barriers or special needs.
DAP Emotional Disturbance
Draw a Person
In the Rain
Animal figures have the advantages of:
being more culture free
less structured with regard to age and sex than human figures

In constructing the CAT, there was an attempt to depict scenes that would elicit
material relevant to important situations and problems in the child’s life
:
feeding
rivalry
aggression
loneliness
interactions with parental figures


Produce classroom scenes in which they
play out victories
, interests, or their fears and upsets

Can provide information about
attitudes toward school
, and also broader information about maturity, level of functioning, and possible areas of difficulty.
House Tree Person:
John Buck
"I want you to draw a picture of a house. You may draw any kind of house you wish, and do the best you can. You may erase as much as you like. You may take as much time as you need. Just do your best."
HTP Instructions
House Post Drawing Interrogation

Does that house have an upstairs?
Which room would you take for your own?
What does that house need most?
Has anyone or anything ever hurt that house?
What does that house make you think of?
HTP Interrogation
TREE Post Drawing Interrogation
What kind of tree is that?
Is that tree alive?
Is any part of the tree dead?
What do you think caused it to die?
If that tree were a person, which way would that person be facing?, Why?
Is it a healthy tree?
Of what does the tree make you think of?
What does the tree need most?
HTP Interrogation
PERSON Post Drawing Interrogation
Is that a man, women, boy, or girl?
Suppose that sun were some person you know. Who would it be? Why?
What does this person need most?
Is that person happy? Why?
Is that person well? If sick, what’s wrong with him / her?
What is he thinking about?
HTP Interrogation
House:
Considered a
self portrait
in a symbolic sense Often children reflect the home life of an individual.

Tree:
Represents one’s
ego strength
, shape and position of tree suggests feelings of basic power and psychological development.

Person:
Considered a
sense of self
at this point in time
HTP General Interpretation
Instructions:
"Draw a picture of a
person
. Make the very best picture you can. Be sure to make the whole person, not just the head and shoulders."

"Draw a picture of a person of the
opposite sex
from your first picture. Be sure to make the whole person, not just the head and shoulders."

"Draw a picture of
yourself
. Make the very best picture you can. Be sure to make your whole self, not just your head and shoulders."

The test has no time limit; however, children rarely take longer than about 10 or 15 minutes to complete all three drawings.
DAP Administration
Use one piece of paper, say...


“Here I want you to draw a person in the rain, with the umbrella. Be sure to draw all the parts the person, the rain, and the umbrella.”
DAPIR Administration
DAPIR Example
Instructions:

Hand the subject apiece of paper, and say

“Here I want you to draw your family all together doing something. It can be anything you want.”
Kinetic Family Drawing Administration
I like…
The happiest time…
My greatest worry is…
Back home…
What annoys me…
My greatest fear…
In high school…
I can’t…
My mind…
I hate…
I wish…
I secretly…
Marriage…
The future…
Other people…
When I was a child…
I failed…
Sometimes…
My father…
Sentence Completions
My greatest fear…
is tests
I secretly…
If I tell you it won’t be a secret
I am best…
when there is no noise
My father…
I don't want to say
I wish…
my parents were still together
I hate…
being called on in class
Sentence Completion Examples:
Family Kinesthetic Drawing
Family Kinesthetic Drawings
Family Kinesthetic Drawing
Family Kinesthetic Drawings
Family Kinesthetic Drawing
HTP: Tree Example
HTTP: Person Drawing
Today's Agenda
Questions from Last Week?
Projective Measures "Petting Zoo"
Prezi Presentation
Sentence Completion Task
HTP Test
Bi-Lingual Evaluations - Jamie Allison
Now its Your Turn!!


Projective Sentence Completion Test
Take a few minutes and complete the sentence completions with the first thing that comes to your mind.
You can complete it as yourself OR complete it as a child with a specific issue or concern.
You will
not
be required to share these responses with anyone.
Take a few minutes to score your answers with the positive, negative, and neutral indicators.
While the child is completing the Drawing, Record:
a. the initial latency (time before client actually begins actually begins drawing after the instructions are completed)

b. order of details drawn

c. length of pauses and the specific detail being drawn when pause occurs

d. any spontaneous verbalizations or displays of emotion and the detail being drawn when each occurs

e. total time taken to complete the drawing


Now Let's Review your Sample House Drawing and Scoring Template.


Now Its Your Turn!

On your 3 pieces of paper draw a house, tree, and person on each individual page.
Carl Jung
CNS - Cannot Say

VRIN-r -Variable Response Inconsistency

TRIN-r -True Response Inconsistency

F-r - Infrequent Responses

Fp-r - Infrequent Psychopathology Responses

Fs - Infrequent Somatic Responses

FBS-r - Symptom Validity

RBS - Response Bias

L-r - Uncommon Virtues

K-r - Adjustment Validity
Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales
RCd-(dem) -Demoralization
RC1-(som) -Somatic Complaints
RC2-(lpe) - Low Positive Emotions
RC3-(cyn) - Cynicism
RC4-(asb) - Antisocial Behavior
RC6-(per) - Ideas of Persecution
RC7-(dne) - Dysfunctional Negative Emotions
RC8-(abx) - Aberrant Experiences
RC9-(hpm) -Hypomanic Activation

Somatic / Cognitive Scales
MLS - Malaise
GIC - Gastro-Intestinal Complaints
HPC -Head Pain Complaints
NUC -Neurological Complaints
COG -Cognitive Complaints
Internalizing Scales
SUI - Suicidal/Death Ideation
HLP - Helplessness/Hopelessness
SFD - Self-Doubt
NFC -Inefficacy
STW -Stress / Worry
AXY - Anxiety
ANP -Anger Proneness
BRF - Behavior-Restricting Fears
MSF -Multiple Specific Fears

Externalizing Scales
JCP - Juvenile Conduct Problems
SUB -Substance Abuse
AGG -Aggression
ACT - Activation
Historical Foundations of Projective Measures
Galton:
Experiments with Word Association Methods, 1879

Freud:
Interpretation of Dreams, 1900

Jung:
Word Association Lists, 1910

Myers & Briggs:
created the indicator during World War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the sort of war-time jobs that would be "
most comfortable and effective
".

The initial questionnaire grew into the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
, which was first published in 1962.

Robert Kaplan and Dennis Saccuzzo believe "the underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation"
Myers Briggs Personality Types
www.myersbriggs.org/my.../mbti-basics/

“The boy just got a violin for his birthday. He didn’t want such an adult gift. Now he has to learn to play it. His parents are constantly making him do more stuff. He just wanted some kind of kids toys like Legos.”
"The young lady looks in a mirror and is scared she's getting old now. She thinks about her grandma and then wonders if she's going to look the same way. The old lady knows it going to happen to her and she laughs and thinks it funny."
"That lady just caught her husband with another woman. She thought that something was going on but now she knows for sure. She feels ashamed and thinks she must have done something wrong to make him stray. I guess she'll always be that way and maybe all alone. She'll probably go back to living with her mom."
Children's Apperception Test, CAT
Presents children with family situations which are common but not universal:
prolonged illness
physical disability
mother's pregnancy
separation of parents
violence
sexual abuse
surgery
SUPPLEMENT TO THE CHILDREN'S APPERCEPTION TEST (C.A.T.-S)
Roberts Apperception Test
Roberts-2
1. Pick up each handout and three blank pieces
of paper
2. Feel free to browse through the projective
measures
3. Complete the 1st page of the Sentence
Completion Test. Please do not go onto the
second page and score.
4. If time allows... draw a house, tree, and person
one on each piece of paper

Before We get Started:
Favorite world:
Do you prefer to focus on the outer world or on your own inner world? This is called
Extraversion (E)
or
Introversion (I)
.

Information:
Do you prefer to focus on the basic information you take in or do you prefer to interpret and add meaning? This is called
Sensing (S)
or
Intuition (N).

Decisions:
When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at logic and consistency or first look at the people and special circumstances? This is called
Thinking (T)
or
Feeling (F)
.

Structure:
In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided or do you prefer to stay open to new information and options? This is called
Judging (J)
or
Perceiving (P)
.

MBTI
Originally based on the Goodenough Draw a Person scale of intellectual functioning
Developed in 1948, and updated in 1969
KFD Manuals
Classroom Kinetic Drawings
Full transcript