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Protein Notes

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Erica McGowan

on 8 November 2017

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Transcript of Protein Notes

Protein Notes
Fitness and Nutrition
Amino Acids
They are the chemical building
from which new proteins are made.
There are 9 amino acids that are essential to human health and nutrition.
There are 11 non-
amino acids the body can make on it's own.
Two Types of Protein:
Incomplete Proteins:
How to make a complete protein AKA Complementary Protein:
Why do we need protein?
Build and repair body


Maintain cell growth in the formation of new body tissue. This is especially important if the body is growing rapidly, injured, or under stress.

Helps body organs function and stay in good condition.

Aid in the formation of enzymes, some hormones and antibodies.

Provides energy if sufficient carbohydrates and fats are not supplied by the diet.

Page 74-78
General Sources of Protein
meat, eggs, fish, poultry
legumes, peanuts, nuts, seeds
milk, cheese, yogurt
Tofu, soy products
High Quality Proteins: Animal Sources
Contains all
essential amino acids
ex: Egg
Low Quality Proteins: Plant Sources
Lacks one or
essential amino acid
ex: corn, wheat, beans
Another way to classify proteins:
Complete Protein
Comes from
based food
Incomplete Protein
Comes from
based food
Complete Proteins:
Is a food that has all the
amino acids an individual needs is called a complete protein.
Complete proteins support growth and normal maintenance of body tissues.
proteins are complete proteins. (ex: milk, eggs, cheese, fish and meat have all 9 amino acids.)

Lack one or more essential amino acid and will neither support
or provide normal maintenance of body tissues.
There are various ways to make protein complete:
By combining plant and animal foods
By combining plant proteins with a variety of cereals and grains

butter lacks 3 amino acids. By spreading it on buttered whole wheat (not white) bread and serving it with a glass of
or some yogurt it becomes a complete protein.
Grains have two amino acids, while
have two others. If you have a meal of beans and rice, you end up creating a complete protein.

Protein can take the place of some fat and carbohydrates, but fat and carbohydrates cannot serve in place of the body's need for protein.

That is why the minimum amount of protein, from a
source, must be consumed daily

Proteins are needed at all meals but especially at breakfast to replenish amino acids used for
and maintenance during the night.

Your body prioritizes energy needs above the need for growth and repair of body tissue. If your food contains insufficient carbohydrates and fat to supply your energy needs, you digest protein as fuel.

and low-fat diets could cause loss of muscle mass and interfere with hormones.
The best animal sources of protein for optimum

are milk, eggs, cheese and lean meat.

It is not necessary, however, to devour pounds of steak, dozens of eggs or gallons of milk daily for that purpose. In fact, excessive amounts of these foods may do more harm than good.

What should I eat to get protein?
The best way to be healthy is to eat from all groups of the food pyramid/plate, watch your portion sizes, and exercise.

High protein diets will work in the SHORT TERM. You will lose weight, but it is due to
water loss
from not storing carbs in your body.

Diets, in general, are BAD!

Drinking protein shakes or using protein powders WILL NOT help you build muscle.
WORKING OUT is the only way to build your muscle.
Amino acid supplements should not be needed.
If you are thinking about taking a protein supplement, you should ALWAYS consult your

How Much Protein?
Protein needs are influenced by:
body size
Quality of the proteins
Physical state of the person
Boys: 52g
Girls: 46g

Too much Protein
Excess protein not immediately needed by the body is converted to fat and stored in adipose

to be used as energy. Unfortunately it cannot be converted back to amino acids.

Too little protein
Deficiencies of protein can cause
, loss of weight, lack of energy. In children growth can be stunted. Lack of sufficient protein can lower the body's resistance to disease. Prolonged lack of protein can result in liver damage and eventual
may result.

A form of malnutrition that occurs when there is not enough protein in the diet.
Symptoms: Changes in skin pigment; Decreased muscle mass; Diarrhea;
Failure to gain weight and
grow; Fatigue; Hair change

Vegetarians have long argued that it is possible, with careful planning, to meet daily
requirements without consuming animal sources.

Why become a Vegetarian?
Economics- Meat is more expensive than beans and rice.
Parental preferences
Religious beliefs
Concern over
Concern over the environment

Types of Vegetarians:
: consume foods only from plant sources
: eat foods from plant sources and
eat foods from plant sources and eggs
Lacto-ovo vegetarians
: eat foods from plant sources, dairy products, and eggs
: eat no red meat, but eat poultry and seafood

Warm up: Where do complete proteins come from?
Full transcript