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Budgeting For Instruction

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by

Michael Crossan

on 6 October 2014

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Transcript of Budgeting For Instruction

Budgeting For Instruction
What is instructional planning?
What is the role of districts and schools in instructional planning?
How do schools organize for instructional budgeting?
What is the roles and size of instructional budgets?
What are sources of revenue for instructional budgets?
What are the elements of instructional budgeting?
What are the sources of instructional revenues?
What does an instructional budget look like?
3 overriding realities
“successful instructional planning comes from hiring experts who envision and direct the teacher and learning process.” (208)
“Good instructional plan never gets carried out without the support of a strong financial plan” (208)
“Operationalizing good instruction requires a deliberate plan based on a formal mission and a set of measurable goal statements.”(208)

Chapter Drivers
What Are the Elements of Budgeting for Instruction
Instructional Budget Concepts
Organizational Options
Chapter Drivers
The Planning Function
District Mission and Goals
School Mission and Goals
"The primary value has been that once such statements are made public, the performance burden increases noticeably." (209)
These are sometimes redundant to what the district mission and goals maintain, but "it is symbolic for schools to spend time and energy building commitment to the larger organization's aims." (209)
"The planning function is the act of determining district and school mission and goals, coupled with an actionable expenditure plan to achieve those outcomes." (210)
Centralized Structure
"Instructional budgeting is highly dependent on school district organizational design. Although there are many variations, districts are first driven by central administration's leadership style. " (210)
Management Team
Site-Based Management
Budget decisions are determined by few central office staff.
Line Item or Program Budgeting
Uniformed allocations to schools
Benefits
Central Office Responsibility
Necessary Expertise
Organizational Efficiency
Drawbacks
Decision making and ownership are tightly held.
This is the middle ground between the Centralized Structure and Site-Based Management.
Most big decisions made by central office staff.
Benefits
Advice
Check and Balances
Drawbacks
Agree/Disagree
Persuasion

"More heads are better than one."
Individual schools accept far more responsibility for budget decisions.
All decision making falls on the shoulders of each individual school.
Central Office acts as the "board."
Benefits
Greater Latitude
Greater Power at the School Level
Drawbacks
Heavy Burden
Legal/Ethical Issues
Lack of Expertise
"Number of students drives revenues, which in-turn drives staffing, thereby driving a hugh proportion of total expenditures" (218)
What Are Instructional Budgets
1. An Instructional Budget is the portion of the budget remaining after excluding all non-instructional costs. This would include instructional staff, support staff, central office staff, instructional supplies, and professional development. On average this is about 85%-87% of the budget.
or
2. An Instructional Budget is a portion of the total budget after subtracting all salaries and non-teaching supply costs.
or
3. An Instructional Budget includes all costs that go to directly to students. This includes teachers, supplies, equipment, special education services, other support services, librarians, counselors, nurses, and transportation.
What Are Sources of Revenue
External Sources
Federal Aid
State Revenue
Local Revenue
District Revenue Structures (3 Options - Centeralized, Management Teams, Site-Based)
Purchase Orders or Work Orders flow through Central Office. Control is present, efficiency is maximized, staff is not burdened by non-instructional financial duties, and all schools are treated equally.
Central establishes grants for each school, while keeping some items centrally funded.
In Site-Based, the district acts as a funnel, flowing funds to schools.
School Revenue Structures
District Revenues: This is how much revenue is allocated by the districtto individual schools.
School Site Revenues: This is money that is generated at the individual school level beyond what is normally distributed by the school district.
Needs Assessment
Determining Revenue
and Educational Plans
District Coordination
What Does an Instructional
Budget Look Like?
What is instructional planning?
What is the role of districts and schools in instructional planning?
How do schools organize for instructional budgeting?
What is the roles and size of instructional budgets?
What are sources of revenue for instructional budgets?
What are the elements of instructional budgeting?
What are the sources of instructional revenues?
What does an instructional budget look like?
See Figure 7.5 on page 221
Identifies the important data elements required to build an Instructional Budget
The environmental scan provides meaningful data on the following conditions:
Community
School District
Individual School
Resources should be prioritized based on the scan's results.
"Revenue flow from Federal, State, District, and School set sources".
After the District has determine the per-pupil allocation and the individual school has secure external funding for other programs, then the educational plan is build
Educational Plan

The educational plan addresses the following:
Priorities of the school and district
Concerns found from the environmental scan

Create short-term, intermediate, and long-term goals for the following areas:
grade level, programs, departments, and classrooms



Make sure the resources are matched to children's needs.
Program-based budgets
School districts are responsible for the coordination of the budget.

Budget calendar provides the schools with the coordination of the district.
See page 226
"Track instructional budgets by accounting codes."
"Decentralize many budget aspects while retaining central office oversight through the school board and central office directorship."
"Allocate uniform amounts per-pupil for instructional program".
"Retain overall transportation services at the central office level".
Decentralize some aspect of capital outlay and equipment purchases."
Link expenditures to expected outcomes".
Full transcript