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Transcript of Biodiversity
May 11, 2012
Mr. Torrence Introduction to Taxonomy Taxonomy is the scientific system of identifying, naming, and classifying organisms.
(Bowers, R. 2002) The historical development of modern taxonomy has progressed from simple classifications based on habitat to a complex system that is able to accurately classify millions of species of organisms. Historically, organisms have been classified by:
a habitat-based system, developed by Aristotle
usefulness and edibility for humans, introduced by St. Augustine
the structural similarities and characteristics, formulated by Carolus Linnaeus
(Bowers, R. 2002) Kingdom Phylum/Divison Class Order The Taxonomic Hierarchy Family Genus Species Phylogenetic Tree Cordata Agaricus campestris,
'Meadow Mushroom' Kingdom: Fungi
Species: campestris Fungi Plantae Protista Biological Classifications Anamalia Monera Carolus Linnaeus Carolus Linnaeus, "The Father of Taxonomy"(Britannica, 2012), is credited for developing binomial nomenclature. Binomial nomenclature is the standard naming system used in modern taxonomy which assigns a two-part Latin name consisting of the organism's genus and species. The binomial nomenclature naming system created objectivity in the study of living things and allowed for uniform naming of species that reduced confusion in biology by referring to organisms by their structural characteristics.
Bowers,R. (2002) Similar to the taxonomic hierarchy system of classifying organisms, phylogenetic trees depict the possible evolutionary lineage of organism based of their structural characteristics and similarities.
The cordata phylogenetic tree, for example, shows the relation between the classes of the cordata phylum. Urochordata Cephalochordata Agnatha Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Organisms in the animalia kingdom are multicellular eukaryotes that lack cell walls. Kingdom animalia organisms are typically motile and reproduce by sexual means. Highly specialized cells, forming complex internal systems, set this kingdom apart. This phylum contains heterotrophic organisms which display the greatest diversity of all five kingdoms.
Torrence (2012) All chordates are bilaterally symmetrical with a ventral heart and a dorsal nerve cord. Some characteristic chordate features appear only in the embryonic stage of development but all chordates possess at some point a;
dorsal supporting structure called a notocord
dorsal, hallow nerve cord
gills near the throat
tail which extends past the anal opening Protists are eucaryotic and primarily unicellular organisms that are classified by the nature of their mode of nutrition and locomotion. The protists kingdom contains about 115,000 species of extremely diverse organisms. Protists are the smallest eukayotic organisms but by comparison to the prokaryotic Monera, protists are much larger and have more complex cellular functions.
Torrence (2012) Organisms within the plant kingdom are multicellular, eukaryotic, and have cell walls that are strengthed with cellulose. Plants have specialized organelles that carry out photosynthesis & cellular respiration and are therefore autotrophic. A key plantae feature that distinguishes plants from other autotrophic organisms is that reproductive embryos are usually protected by tissues of the parent plant, called a seed.
Torrence (2012) Figure 1. Carolus Linaeus Dichotomous Key A classification scheme for select North American mushrooms Mycology Terms Bruising:
the color change that occurs during handling
describes a mushroom stalk which is thicker near the
the top or head of the mushroom
refers to the centrally pointed, convex shape of the
a concave or inwardly bent shape of the fruiting body
the reproductive portion of a fungus
the radial plates that are located on the underside of
the mushroom cap and which produce spores
an opening in the fruiting body which produces spores
the fungi reproductive body
discolored or raised patches on the surface of a
the portion of the mushroom that supports the cap
Knopf, A. A. (2008) To remember the eight taxas of the taxonomic hierarchy, including domain, just think:
Dr. KaPCOd ForGetS! A dichotomous key identifies unknown organisms using a series of choices between two statements or questions based on the organisms phylogenetic characteristics. When used and made correctly, dichotomous keys reveal the common and Latin name of unknown organisms. Identification keys can be in classic or spider-key form and is the most widely used classification scheme in biological science.
Bowers, R. (2002) Specimens is rounded, bell, or cylindrical shaped is conical, depressed, or coral shaped when mature is centrally depressed when mature "Organism..." is conical or coral shaped Organisms within the urochordata class, commonly known as tunicates, lose many cordata features (except gill slits) when mature. Young tunicates swim freely and become sessile filter-feeders when mature. Embryos in
shell is brightly colored
and coral shaped has a defined cap has flaps of tissue
at the edge of cap has a narrow stalk is bright yellow oozes red when cut has a rough, scaly, or uneven cap has a smooth or
shiny surface is purple is orange
or green is cylindrical has gills The monera kingdom contain procaryotic, unicellular organisms that are commonly called bacteria. Bacteria are microscopic in size and cannot be seen by the naked eye unless found in massive colonies. Most bacteria are non-motile and posses cell walls. The monera kingdom can be split into two sub-groups; Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.
Eubacteria are considered 'true bacteria' and archaebacteria, or simply archea, are extreme organisms that posses unusual qualities. Domain For Example, the taxonomic hierarchy for the common 'meadow mushroom' is; grows on decaying wood grows in fields,
on forest floors,
and along roads has a gelatinous
outer layer and a
central darkened pore has visible radial
lines@ edge of cap has pores or 'pits' has scales has a bulbous stalk does not have
a bulbous stalk bruises blue has a sponge-like,
pitted surface is white has scales on stalk has pores has close-set gills King Bolete Bluing Bolete Morel Morchella esculenta Gyroporus cyanescens Boletus edulis Shaggy Mane Coprinus comatus Old Man of the Woods Strobilmyces floccopus Parrot Mushroom Hygrocybe psittacine Aspic Puffball Calastoma cinnabarina Velvet Foot Flammulina velutipes References Armstrong, W.P. (2002). 'Major Phyla of Animals' http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trnov01.htm#animals
Bowers, R., Eichorn, D., Silverman, L., Souza, G., Young R. (2002).
Diversity of Living Things. In Addison Wesley (Ed.), Biology 11.
(375-475). Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Education Canada Inc.
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2012). Carolus Linaeus.
Island Creek. (2012). 'Meadow Mushroom'.
TutorVista.com. (2010). Phylum Cordata and it's Characteristics. Retrived
Knopf, A.A. (2008). National Audubon Society Pocket Guide Farmiliar
Mushrooms. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Appendix Figure 1: 'Carolus Linaeus' Retrived from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/342526/Carolus-Linaeus
Figure 2: Knopf, A.A. 'Meadow Mushrooms' National Audubon Society Pocket Guide Familiar Mushrooms (66)
Figure 3: 'Domains of Life' Retrieved from; http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/historyoflife.php
Figure 4: 'Tunicate' Retrieved from: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/zoology/biologicaldiverstity/AnimalsIII/AnimalsIII.htm
Figure 5: 'Agnatha' Retrieved from: http://eol.org/pages/2774384/overview
Figure 6: 'Lancelet' Retrieved from: http://www.kau.edu.sa/ImageGallery.aspx?Site_ID=0010549&LNG=EN&Gal=1130
Figure 7: 'Bony Fish' Retrieved from: http://biodidac.bio.uottawa.ca/thumbnails/filedet.htm?File_name=OSTE004B&File_type=GIF
Figure 8: 'Shark' Retrieved from: http://greatneck.k12.ny.us/gnps/shs/dept/science/krauz/marino_bio_notes/Chondrichthyes.htm
Figure 9: 'Frog' Retrieved from: http://www.biology-resources.com/drawing-amphibia-frog.html
Figure 10: 'Iguana' Retrieved from: http://reptiliamania.blogspot.ca/2011/01/babying-your-baby-iguana.html
Figure 11: 'Aves' Retrieved from: http://www.revistaveterinaria.com.br/2011/07/13/como-as-aves-voam/
Figure 12: 'Mammalia' Retrieved from: http://www.revistaveterinaria.com.br/2011/07/13/como-as-aves-voam/
Figure 13: 'Flagellate', Figure 14: 'Amoebas', & Figure 15: 'Ciliates' Retrieved from: http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/microorganisms/protista/section2.rhtml
Figure 16 'Algae' Retrieved from: http://www.cleanbreak.ca/2010/11/09/commercial-algae-biofuels-wont-be-ready-for-at-least-10-years-study/
Figure 17: 'Euglena' Retrieved from: http://www.simpletoremember.com/articles/a/evolution-facts/
Figure 18: 'Sporozoan' Retrieved from: http://nondiscovery.wordpress.com/2009/03/24/michael-behe-compares-apples-to-oranges-while-waiting-for-two-mutations/
Figure 19: 'Baker's Yeast' Retrieved from: http://greaterimmunity.com/Files/candida_explained.html
Figure 20: 'Bread Mold' Retrieved from: http://www.imaginationstationtoledo.org/content/2011/08/is-it-safe-to-eat-that-moldy-bread/
Figure 21: 'Mushrooms' Retrieved from: http://oregonmushroomstories.org/2011/12/22/histoire-naturelle/
Figure 22: 'Lichen' Retrieved from: http://www.saburchill.com/ans02/chapters/chap010.html *Sourced from: Knopf, A.A. (2008) 'Familiar Mushrooms' Aves, or birds, share many features with reptiles however birds have feathers, can generate their own body heat, and have four-chambered hearts as compared to the more basic (and less efficient) 3-chambered heart. Reptiles such as the Iguana posses structural adaptations that allow for terrestrial life and the expansion of habitat into increasingly hostile environments. Protective shells and thick skin are some adaptations that help amphibians survive outside of marine environments. Mammalian organisms all have hair and specialized teeth that allow this class to inhabit remote areas of the world. A highly efficient 4-chambered heart allows mammals to sustain muscle activity for longer periods of time. Organisms within the 'superclass agnatha' lack jaws and paired fins. This specimin, the lamprey, also lacks appendages and instead undulates their entire bodies to move Bowers, R. (2002). Has lungs when mature cap is less then 2" wide cap is more then 2" wide lacks a stalk gills run partway
down the stalk TutorVista.com (2010),
Bowers, R. (2002) grows in clusters is reddish-orange,
fading to pink Golden Trumpets Scarlet Cup Sarcoscypha coccinea Xeromphalina campanella Ramaria araiospora Carmine Coral Saffron Parasol Cystoderma amianthinum Bleeding Mycena Mycena haematopus Yellow Unicorn Entoloma murraii Purple Club Coral Clavaria purpurea Violet Cartinarius Cortinarius violaceus Pholiota squarrosa Scaly Pholiota Cantharellus cinnabarinus Red Chanterelle has scales is blue & oozes blue when cut Indigo Lactarius Lactarius indigo has course, raised scaled on stalk bruises red and has
a slightly bulbous base Scaly Hydnum Scarcodon imbricatum Amanita rubescens Blusher Figure 2 Island Creek (2012) Invertebrates Organisms classified under the cephalochordata class, such as the lancelet, are marine animals that have no head or limbs yet have tentacles which bring food particles to the oral cavity. Figure 3-Domains of Life All life on earth can be classified under one of the three domains depicted in figure 3. A domain is the highest classification in the taxonomic hierarchy and is therefore the most general taxa, organizing organisms based on cellular structures (prokaryote or eukaryote) and DNA sequences. Figure 4- Tunicates Figure 5- Agnatha Figure 6 Lancelets The kingdom fungi contain eukaryotic organism that use chitin as opposed to cellulose for cell stability. Most are multicellular are non-motile however there are some exceptions. Fungi are most recognizable by the fruiting body of a mushroom, however, the fungi kingdom also contains yeast, molds and lichens. All of these fungi phylums contain eukaryotic organisms that feed by consuming decaying matter and are therefore considered heterotrophic saprobes (meaning decomposers). Decomposers are an important part of every ecosystem because they break down organic matter and return nutrients to the soil that can then be used by other organisms.
(Bowers, R. 2002.) Yeasts Mushrooms Molds Lichens Mosses Club Mosses Horsetails Ferns Gynosperms Angiosperms Flagellates Amoebas Ciliates Sporozoans Euglenoids Algae Cyanobacteria Halophiles Anaerobic methanogens Thermophiles Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Echinodermata Anthropoda Chordata The osteichthyes, or bony fish, is a marine cordata which develops an intricate skeletal system of bones when mature as shown in figure 7. Figure 7 Bony fish Class chondrichthyes organisms have jaws and paired appendages. They are bilaterally symmetrical and have a cartilaginous notocord rather then bones. Figure 8 Shark Figure 9 Frog Amphibians include frogs (as shown in figure 9), toads and salamanders. Young amphibians live in water environments but develops into terrestrial adults. Fossil evidence shows that amphibians may have been the first vertebrates to live on land. Figure 10 Iguana Figure 10 Aves Figure 12 Mammalia Flagellates are grouped together based on a common mode of locomotion, the flagellum, which is a long whip-like structure that propels the organism forward. Flagellates may have one flagellum or many. All flagellates are heterotrophic and may eat other protists or live as parasites. The Trypanosoa gambiensis flagellate is parasitic and has a single flagellum.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 13 Flagellate Figure 14 Amoeba Amoebas have no set body shape and instead move & eat via projections of cytoplasm called pseudopods as seen in figure 14. Food particles are captured within a pseudopod and a vacuole then forms around the food particle.
(Bowers,R. 2002) Figure 15 Ciliate Ciliates, such as the image depicting all protista, are covered in hair-like projections that propel the protists forward. Ciliates have two types of neuclei- the macronucleus and micronucleus- and use cilia that continue into the oral grove to sweep food particles to food vacuoles for digestion, thereby making it heterotrophic.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Algae are protists that may be mistaken for plant because they are use chloroplasts to create food by photosynthesis and may be multicellular. Algae, however, can only survive in marine habitats and do not have terrestrial adaptations such as specialized supportive organs as plants do.
Algae are responsible for the majority of the free
atmospheric oxygen and are therefore a critical part of
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 16 Algae Figure 17 Euglena Euglenoids such as the more common Euglena (along with algae) are sometimes called 'plant-like protists' because they can be autotrophic feeders, creating their own nourishment by photosynthesis. Euglennoids are unicellular organisms capable of moving with their single flagella and can become heterotrophic feeders when deprived of sunlight!
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 19 Sporozoan Protists within the sporozoan phylum reproduce in vast numbers by using spores, hence the name. Sporozoans such as the malaria-causing Plasmodium malariae are parasitic and non-motile.
(Bowers, R. 2002) To view dichotomous key;
Use your mouse to drag the screen
Use the + and - buttons on the left hand side of the screen to zoom in or out
Click on the blue frames to view specific items up close
Press the backwards arrow on the bottom right hand side of the screen to return to this view Definition Biological classification systems use objective information to group organisms together so as to better understand the evolutionary development of species. Modern biological classifications such as the dichotomous key or phylogenetic tree uses phylogenetic or 'natural' characteristics to differentiate between various organisms. The rich diversity of life on earth requires scientist to be very specific in classifying organisms and images are often used to further clarify classifications.
(Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012) Yeasts are oval shaped, unicellular fungi that can reproduce very rapidly by budding. Yeast's can tolerate anaerobic conditions and are used by humans because of the by-products that are created when yeast undergoes fermentation-CO2, and alcohol. Figure 19 shows a colony of budding Baker's yeast.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 19 Baker's yeast Molds are terrestrial fungi that can reproduce asexually and sexually using spores and root-like structures called hyphae. A mass of mold hyphae spreads into the food source, in this case bread. The fruiting bodies can be seen on the surface of the bread and is the location of spore production.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 20 Bread mold Figure 21 Mushrooms Mushrooms use spore-baring fruiting bodies to reproduce and gain their nutrition by acting as decomposers or parasites. The shape of the fruiting body is the main characteristic used to distinguish between the many varieties of mushrooms. Mushrooms have an underground network of hyphae similar to the Bread mould which serves to protect against changing environmental conditions and is a part of the mushroom's sexual reproduction .
(Bowers, R. 2002) Lichens are fungi that live in a symbiotic relationship with algea or cynobacterium. The fungi provides water, minerals, and protection in return for nourishment.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 22 Lichen Mosses require moist environments to reproduce because they do not have seeds to protect their embryos and instead produce spores which use water for transport to suitable growing mediums. Moss is also called peat moss and has been used industrially to generate energy.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 23: 'Moss' Retrieved from:http://bio.rutgers.edu/~gb101/lab7_p_evol/p_evol_web/mosspage.html
Figure 24: 'Club Moss' Retrieved from: http://luirig.altervista.org/photos-en/lycopodium-clavatum---common-club-moss.htm
Figure 25: 'Horsetail' Retrieved from: http://chestofbooks.com/flora-plants/weeds/Poisonous-Plants-Canada/Horsetail-Family-Equisetaceae-Common-Or-Field-Horsetail-Equisetum-Arvense-L.html
Figure 26: 'Fern' Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fern
Figure 27: 'Conifer' Retrieved from: http://learningon.theloop.school.nz/moodle/mod/book/tool/print/index.php?id=15991
Figure 28: 'Angiosperm' Retrieved from: http://draget.net/hoe/index.php?p=p12
Figure 29- Figure 37 Retrieved from: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trnov01.htm#animalsm: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trnov01.htm#animals Club mosses is a primative division of a diverse group of plants called tracheophytes that have conductive tissue to transport materials throughout the plant. Also known as vascular plants, tracheophytes grow taller then moss and have a greater habitat range because they are less dependent on wet environments. Vascular plants are divided into spore-producing and seed-producing groups.
Club mosses produce spores and therefore must live near water. They can be found in marches and near streams.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 24 Club moss Ferns are spore-producing vascular plants
that have a habitat range from the arctic to
the tropical rain forest. Ferns, like the mosses, require wet environments to reproduce but have more developed reproductive organs and grow
much larger then moss or club moss.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Horsetails are closely related to club mosses
and have many similar qualities. Horsetails are
primative spore-producing plants that require moist environments to survive.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 25 Horsetail Figure 26 Fern Gymnosperms are commonly called
conifers, which make up approximately
half of Ontario's forests. Conifers are
seed-producing vascular plants that
reproduce sexually using a pollination
process. The embryos of gymnosperms
are protected by a cones, a protective
casing surrounding seeds.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 27 Conifer *Click on image to enlarge Angiosperms are seed-producing vascular plants that pollinate by means of a flower. The pollinated seeds are contained in a fruit which protects and nourishes the seeds. Angiosperms are the most widespread and studied of the plantae kingdom, containing approximately 250,000 species.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Figure 28 Angiosperm Figure 29 Sponges Porifera, or sponges, are basic multicellular organisms that are non-motile. Sponges are marine filter-feeders, gaining their nourishment from microscopic plankton. Porifera like those shown in figure 29 display radial symmetry or have irregular body shapes. (Armstrong, W.P. 2012) The phylum cnidaria includes corals and jellyfish which are marine animals that are radially symmetrical and are considered invertebrates. Figure 30 shows the numerous pores or chambers of a coral which provide a place for other organisms to live in harmony with the coral. Colonies of corals make up immense reefs that provide shelter for other marine organisms.
(Armstrong, W.P. 2002) Figure 30 Coral Figure 31 Tapeworm Platyhelminthes, or flatworms, are bilaterally aymmetrical and may be parasitic such as the tapeworm in figure 31. Flatworms have simple, unsegmented bodies that lack body cavities and use simple diffusion to tranport nutrients.
(Armstrong, W. P. 2002) The nematoda phylum are commonly called round worms. Round worms are bilaterally symmetrical and may live on land or in water. Namatoda consists of many parasitic worms that gain nutrients from other organisms and are therefore heterotrophic. Roundworms have four distinct cell layers,as shown in figure 32, and a complete digestive system.
(Armstrong, W.P. 2002) Annelids are segmented worms that have bodies that are composed of many segments with individual muscles and nerves. The ability to move separate segments gives the annelid greater muscle control in order to burrow.
(Torrence, 2012) Molluscs are organisms that have shells that may be reduced or internal, like the squid, or may be external, like the snail. Muscular bodies are used for movement and a mantle cavity serves to rid wastes and is part of the gas exchange process.
(Torrence, 2012) Figure 34 Snail Figure 33 Annalida Figure 32 Roundworm Figure 35 Echinodermata Commonly called sand dollars, echinodermatas like those in figure 35 display radial symmetry, usually with 5 part sections extending from the central axis. Sand dollars are the fossilized exoskeleton of an echinodermata organism.
(Armstrong, W.P. 2002) Figure 36 Anthropoda Anthropods like the centipede have hard external skeletons and many specialized segments that increase the range of motion that anthropods are capable of. Paired appendages may vary in size and function, causing increased diversity of species. Other anthropods include: crustaceans, insects, and arachnids.
(Torrence, 2012) Figure 37 Chordata Isolated from other anamalia by the development of a supportive rod-like notocord, a dorsal nerve cord, a ventral heart, and the common trait of being bilaterally symmetrical, the cordata phylum shows high degree of variation.
(Bowers, R. 2002) Cyanobacteria or true bacteria may be terrestrial or marine based. Bacteria can be found in every environment, in very large numbers. They are unicellular but often form colonies of similar organisms. They are photosynthetis autotroths that use simple diffusion to transport materials. Cyanobacteria have simple cell structures and no flagella.
(Torrence, 2012) Archea are found in extreme environments. Halophiles have the ability to survive salt-rich habitats.
(Armstrong, W.P. 2002) Thermophiles are archaebacteria that live in very hot habitats. Thermophiles can be found in hot springs and marine environments above 100 degrees Celsius. (Armstrong, W.P. 2002) Anaeobic methanogens are archeabacteria that live in marshy environments ans can survive without oxygen.
(Armstrong, W.P. 2002)