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Chemistry - Chp 7 - Ionic Bonding

Ions and Ionic Bonds - by Dr. Schumacher from the Wilbraham Textbook
by

Jeanne Schumacher

on 22 January 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry - Chp 7 - Ionic Bonding

Chp 7
Ionic
Bonds 7.1
Ions 7.2
Ionic Bonds &
Compounds Valence Electrons
. Octet
Rule Formation
of Cations Formation
of Anions Formation
of Ionic
Compounds Properties of
Ionic
Compounds electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element’s atoms #of valence e- determines Chemical Properties
Valence e- in representative elements = group number
only electrons used in chemical bonds Electron dot structures –
diagrams that show valence electrons as dots atoms achieve the e- configuration of Noble Gas in forming compounds metallic elements = lose valence e-
nonmetallic elements = gain e- or share atom’s loss of valence e- (+ charged ion) Representative elements
lose enough e- to attain e- configuration of a Noble Gas Transition metals =
Charges of cations may vary
E.g. Fe+2, Fe +3
Form exceptions to the octet rule
E.g silver - [Kr] 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s1
Will lose the 5s1
Forms pseudo noble gas configuration ( all Orbitals are filled in the outer energy level) gain of negatively charged e- Halide ions
when atoms of group VIIA gain e- composed of cations and anions Become electrically neutral Ionic bonds
electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds Chemical formula
shows the kinds and #s of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance
Ionic compound exists as a collection of + and - charged ions
arranged in repeating patterns
e.g. NaCl – chemical formula refers to a ratio known as a formula unit Formula unit
lowest whole # ratio of ions in an ionic compound
Can be in other ratios than 1:1
 Must be equal and opposite Most crystalline solids at room temp.
Ions are ranged in repeating three dimensional patterns
E.g. NaCl – each Cl- is surrounded by 6 Na+
Each ion is attracted strongly to neighbors & repulsions minimized High melting points
Large attractive forces result in a very stable structure
E.g. NaCl 801C (1474F) Coordination number
# of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal
E.g. NaCl – each Cl- is surrounded by 6 Na+ coordination # = 6 Conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water
orderly crystal structure breaks down
If voltage is applied, cations move freely to one electrode and anions move freely to the other
This allows electricity to flow between electrodes
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