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Dr. Jose Rizal: Second Travel

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Jacelle Summer

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Transcript of Dr. Jose Rizal: Second Travel

(1) the Calamba agrarian trouble was
getting worse

(2) the Dominican Order filed a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal family of their lands in
Calamba

Letters from home which Rizal received in Brussels worried him.
Victoria Hotel
- Rizal stayed while in Hong Kong. He was welcomed by Filipino residents, including
Jose Maria Basa, Balbino Mauricio
, and
Manuel Yriarte
(son of Francisco Yriarte, alcalde mayor of Laguna)

February 8, 1888
IN HONG KONG AND MACAO (1888)
Dr. Jose Rizal:
Second Travel Abroad

February 3, 1888
-Rizal left Manila for Hong Kong on board the
Zafiro
February 7, 1888
- Zafiro made a brief stopover at Amoy

Rizal did not get off his ship at Amoy for three reasons:
(1) he was not feeling well
(2) it was raining hard
(3) he heard that the city was dirty
-Hounded by powerful enemies, Rizal was forced to leave his country for a second time in
February 1888
. He was then a full-grown man of 27 years of age, a
practicing physician
, and a
recognized man-of-letters
VISIT TO MACAO
-According to Rizal, the city of Macao is
small, low, and gloomy
. There are many junks, sampans, but few steamers. It looks sad and is almost dead.
Don Juan Francisco Lecaros
- A filipino gentleman married to a Portuguese lady
-Rizal and Basa stayed at his home while in Macao

February 18, 1888
- Rizal witnessed a
Catholic processional
, in which the devotees were dressed in blue
and purple dresses and were carrying unlighted candles

Japan
ROMANTIC INTERLUDE IN JAPAN (1888)
- One of the happiest interludes in the life of Rizal was his sojourn in the
Land of the Cherry Blossoms
for one month and a half (February 28-April 13, 1888)

February 28, 1888- Rizal arrived in Yokohama and registered at the Grand Hotel

Tokyo Hotel- Rizal stayed here from March 2 to March 7

• Rizal wrote to Professor Blumentritt: “Tokyo is more expensive then Paris. The walls are built in
cyclopean manner. The streets are large and wide.”
Juan Perez Caballero
-secretary of the Spanish Legation, who visited Rizal at his hotel who later invited him to live at the Spanish Legation
• Rizal accepted the invitation for two reasons:
(1) he could economize his living expenses by staying at the legation
(2) he had nothing to hide from the prying eyes of the Spanish authorities
April 28, 1888
- the steamer Belgic, with Rizal on board, docked at San Francisco
May 16, 1888
- Rizal left New York for Liverpool on board the
City of Rome
. According to Rizal, this steamer was
“the second largest ship in the world, the largest being the Great Eastern”
City of Rome
the lack of racial equality:
“America is the land par
excellence of freedom but only for the whites”
Three reasons Rizal lived in London:

(1) to improve his knowledge of the English language
(2) to study and annotate
Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas
, a rare copy of which he heard to be available in the
British Museum
(3) London was a
safe place
for him to carry on his fight against Spanish tyranny

The trans-Atlantic voyage of Rizal from New York to Liverpool was a pleasant one.
• Rizal entertained the American and European passengers with his marvelous skills with the yo-yo as an offensive weapon.

Yoyo
-
is a small wooden disc attached to a string from the finger.
• May 24, 1888
-Rizal arrived at Liverpool, England
• Adelphi Hotel
- Rizal spend the night here while staying for one day in this port city

“Liverpool is a big and beautiful city and its celebrated port is worthy of its great fame. The entrance is magnificent and the customhouse is quite good.”

- librarian of the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and an authority on Malayan languages and customs

-He was impressed by Rizal’s learning and character and he gladly recommended him to the authorities of the British Museum. He called Rizal
“a pearl of a man”
(una perla de hombre)
Visiting Paris
September 1888
- Rizal visited Paris for a week in order to
search for more historical materials in the
Bibliotheque Nationale

- Rizal was entertained in this gay French metropolis by
Juan Luna and his wife
(Pas Pardo de Tavera), who proudly showed him their little son
Andres
(nickname Luling)

December 11, 1888
- Rizal went to Spain, visiting
Madrid and Barcelona
Rizal met, for the first time,
Marcelo H. del Pilar
and
Mariano Ponce
, two titans of the
Propaganda Movement
Asociacion La Solidaridad (Solidaridad Association)
-
a patriotic society,
which cooperate in the crusade for reforms, was inaugurated on December 31, 1888, with the following officers:

President:
Galicano Apacible
Vice President:
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Secretary:
Manuel Santa Maria
Treasurer:
Mariano Ponce
Accountant:
Jose Ma. Panganiban

By unanimous vote of all members,
Rizal was chosen honorary president

January 28, 1889
- Rizal wrote a letter addressed to the members of the Asociacion La Solidaridad

Simultaneous with Rizal retirement from the Propaganda Movement, Rizal
ceased writing articles for La Solidaridad

• August 7, 1891- M.H. del Pilar wrote to Rizal begging forgiveness for any resentment and requesting
Rizal to resume writing for the La Solidaridad
WRITINGS IN LONDON
Letter to the Young Women of Malolos
- a famous letter wrote by Rizal on February 22, 1889 in Tagalog
-this letter is to
praise the young ladies of Malolos
for their courage to establish a school where they could learn Spanish, despite the opposition of
Fr. Felipe Garcia
, a Spanish parish priest of Malolos

The main points of this letter were:
(1) a Filipino mother should teach her children love of God, fatherland,
and mankind
(2) the Filipino mother should be glad, like the Spartan mother, to offer her sons in the
defense of the fatherland
(3) a Filipino woman should know how to preserve her dignity and honor (4) a Filipino woman should educate herself, aside from retaining her good racial virtues
(5) Faith is not merely reciting long prayers and we
Los Agricultores Filipinos (The Filipino Farmers)
- Rizal’s first article which appeared in La Solidaridad which is published on March 25, 1889, six days after he left London for Paris

RIZAL’S SECOND SOJOURN IN PARIS AND THE UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION IN 1889

Valentin Ventura
- a friend of Rizal where he lived, he
polished his annotated edition of Morga’s book

- Rizal used most of his time in the reading room of the
Bibliotheque Nationale (National Library)
checking up his historical annotations on Morga’s book

Rizal was a good friend of the three:
(1)Pardo de Taveras—Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera,
a physician by vocation and philologist by avocation

(2)Dr. Felix Pardo de Tavera,
also physician by vocation and an artist and sculptor by avocation

(3)Paz Pardo de Tavera,
wife of Juan Luna

June 24, 1889 -
a baby girl was born to Juan Luna and Paz Pardo de Tavera, she was their second child
-
Her baptismal godfather was Rizal, who chose her name
“Maria de la Paz, Blanca, Laureana,
Hermenegilda Juana Luna y Pardo de Tavera”
May 6, 1889
- opening of
Universal Exposition of Paris,
the greatest attraction of this exposition was the Eiffel Tower, 984 feet high, which was built by Alexander Eiffel, celebrated French engineer
KIDLAT CLUB
March 19, 1889
-the same day when he arrived in Paris from London, Rizal organized his paisanos (compatriots) into a society called
Kidlat Club

Kidlat Club
-purely a social society of a temporary nature
-founded by Rizal simply to
bring together young Filipinos in the French capital
so that they could enjoy their sojourn in the city during the duration of the Universal Exposition


Dr. Leoncio Lopez-Rizal
- other essay of Rizal is also a prestigious work of historical scholarship. It is an able defense of the alleged indolence of the Filipinos
-Rizal made a critical study of the causes why his people did not work hard during the Spanish regime. His main
thesis was that the
Filipinos are not by nature indolent
The Indolence of the Filipinos
-association proposed by Rizal to establish
taking advantage of world attention
which was then focused at the Universal Exposition in 1889 in Paris and have its inaugural convention in the French capital

- another magnificent project of Rizal in Paris which also fizzled out was his plan to establish a modern college in Hong Kong

Shortly after New Year, Rizal made a brief visit to London.
It may be due to two reasons:

(1) to check up his annotated edition of Morga’s Sucesos with the original copy in the British Museum

(2) to see Gertrude Beckett for the last time

IN BELGIAN BRUSSELS (1890)
Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagala (The New Orthography of the Tagalog Language)
In his moment of despair, Rizal had bad dreams during the nights in Brussels when he was restless because he was always thinking of his unhappy family in Calamba

• Rizal feared that he would not live long. He was not afraid to die, but he wanted to finish his second novel
before he went to his grave.

• In the face of the sufferings which afflicted his family, Rizal planned to go home. He could not stay in
Brussels writing a book while his parents, relatives, and friends in the distant Philippines were persecuted

THE TRIP TO HONGKONG
Jose Sainz de Varanda
- a Spaniard, who was a former secretary of Governor General Terrero, shadowed Rizal’s movement in Hong Kong
-it is believed that he was commissioned by the Spanish authorities to spy on Rizal
“Hong Kong”, wrote Rizal to Blumentritt on February 16, 1888, “is a small, but very clean city.”
-Macao is a Portuguese colony near Hong Kong.
Kiu Kiang
DEPARTURE FROM HONG KONG
February 22, 1888
- Rizal left Hong Kong on board the
Oceanic
,
an American steamer
, his destination was
Japan

• Rizal’s cabin mate was a British Protestant missionary who called Rizal “a good man”

March 7, 1888
Rizal checked out of Tokyo Hotel and lived at the Spanish Legation
Rizal was favorably impressed by Japan.
(1) the beauty of the country—its flowers, mountains, streams and scenic panoramas,
(2) the cleanliness, politeness, and industry of the Japanese people
(3)the picturesque dress and simple charm of the Japanese women
(4) there were very few thieves in Japan so that the houses remained open day and night, and in hotel room one could safely leave money on the table
(5) beggars were rarely seen in the
city, streets, unlike in Manila and other cities
Things that impressed Rizal:
Rickshaw
- popular mode of transportation drawn by men that Rizal did not like in Japan
April 13, 1888

-Rizal left Japan and boarded the
Belgic
, an English steamer, at Yokohama, bound for the
United States
Tetcho Suehiro
-a
fighting Japanese journalist, novelist and champion of human rights
, who was forced by the Japanese government to leave the country
-passenger which Rizal befriended on board the Belgic

April 13 to December 1, 1888
-Rizal and Tetcho were intimate acquaintances for 8 months
December 1, 1888
- after a last warm handshake and bidding each other “goodbye”, Rizal and Tetcho
parted ways—never to meet again

RIZAL’S VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES (1888)
May 4, 1888
- Friday afternoon, the day Rizal was permitted to go ashore
Palace Hotel
- Rizal registered here which was then considered a first-class hotel in the city
May 13, 1888
- Rizal reached New York, the
"big town"
thus ending his trip across the American
continent

Good Impressions of Rizal of the United States
(1) the material progress of the country as shown in the great cities, huge farms, flourishing industries and busy factories
(2) the drive and energy of the American people
(3) the natural beauty of the land
(4) the high standard of living
(5) the opportunities for better life offered to poor immigrants

One Bad Impression
RIZAL IN LONDON
(May 1888- March 1889)

TRIP ACROSS THE ATLANTIC
LIFE IN LONDON

May 25, 1888
- a day after docking at Liverpool, Rizal went to London

Rizal stayed as guest at the home of
Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor
, an exile of 1872 and a practicing lawyer
in London. By the end of May, Rizal found a modest boarding place at No. 37 Chalcot Crescent, Primrose
Hill

Dr. Reinhold Rozt
Both good and bad news from home reached Rizal in London. Of the bad news,
were the injustices
committed by the Spanish authorities on the Filipino people and the Rizal Family
The
greatest achievement
of Rizal in London was the
annotating of Morga’s book, Sucesos de las
Islas Filipinas (Historical Events of the Philippine Islands)
, which was published in Mexico, 1609.
December 24, 1888
-Rizal returned to London and spent Christmas and New Year’s Day with the
Becketts

- Rizal sent a Christmas gift to Blumentritt,
a bust of Emperador Augustus
and a
bust of Julius Caesar
to another friend,
Dr. Carlos Czepelak
(Polish scholar)

-
The Life and Adventures of Valentine Vox, the Ventriloquist
--a Christmas gift from Rizal’s landlady, Mrs Beckett

RIZAL BECOMES LEADER OF FILIPINOS IN EUROPE
RIZAL AND THE LA SOLIDARIDAD NEWSPAPER
February 15, 1889
-
Graciano Lopez Jaena
founded the patriotic newspaper called
La Solidaridad
in
Barcelona

La Solidadridad
-fortnightly periodical which served as the organ of the
Propaganda Movement

Its aims were as follows:

(1) to
work peacefully
for political and social reforms
(2) to
portray the deplorable conditions of the Philippines
so that Spain may remedy them
(3) to
oppose the evil forces of reaction and medievalism

(4) to advocate
liberal ideas and progress
(5) to champion the legitimate aspirations of the Filipino people to life, democracy and happiness

(1) Rizal need to work on his book

(2) He wanted other Filipinos to work also

(3) Rizal considered it very important to the party that
there be unity in the work

(4) Marcelo H. del Pilar is already at the top and Rizal also have his own ideas, it is better to leave del Pilar alone to direct the policy
Reasons Rizal stopped writing for La Solidaridad:
While busy in research studies at the British Museum, Rizal received news on Fray Rodriguez’ unabated attack on his Noli

La Vision del Fray Rodriguez (The Vision of Fray Rodriguez)
-pamphlet wrote by Rizal which published in Barcelona under his nom-de-plume Dimas Alang in order to defense his novel

-In La Vision del Fray Rodriguez, Rizal demonstrated two things:
(1) his profound knowledge of religion
(2) his biting satire

Dr Reinhold Rost
- editor of
Trubner’s Record
, a journal devoted to Asian studies
-requested Rizal to contribute some articles. In response to his request, the latter prepared two articles:
(1)
Specimens of Tagal Folklore
, which published in the journal in May, 1889
(2)
Two Eastern Fables
, published in June, 1889

March 19, 1889
- Rizal bade goodbye to the kind Beckett Family and left London for
Paris
INDIOS BRAVOS
Rizal was enchanted by the dignified and proud bearing of the American Indians in a Buffalo Bull show
Indios Bravos (Brave Indians)
- replaced the ephemeral Kidlat Club

-its members pledged to excel in intellectual and physical prowess in order to win the admiration of the foreigners

-practiced with great the use of the sword and pistol and Rizal taught them judo, an Asian art of self-defense he learned in Japan

R.D.L.M SOCIETY
Sociedad R.D.L.M. (R.D.L.M Society)
- a
mysterious society founded by Rizal
in Paris during the Universal Exposition of 1889
-its existence and role in the crusade reforms are really enigmatic
-Of numerous letters written by Rizal and his fellow propagandists, only two mentioned this secret society, as follows
(1) Rizal’s Letter to
Jose Maria Basa,
Paris, September 21, 1889
(2) Rizal’s Letter to
Marcelo H. del Pilar
, Paris,
November 4, 1889

- grandnephew of the hero
"the society has a symbol or countersign
represented by a circle divided into three parts by two semi-circles having in the center the intwerlocked letters I and B meaning Indios Bravos and the letter R.D.L.M. placed outside an upper, lower, left and right sides of the circle"
Society’s secret name:
Redencion de los Malayos
(Redemption of the Malays)
—Redemption of the Malay Race

It was patterned after Freemasonry. It had various degrees of membership, “with the members not knowing each other.”

Aim of the secret society, as stated by Rizal:
“the propagation of all useful knowledge—scientific, artistic, and literary, etc.—in the Philippines. Evidently, there was another aim that is, the redemption of the Malay race"

It must be noted that Rizal was inspired by a famous book entitled
Max Havelaar (1860)
written by Multatuli (pseudonym of E.D. Dekker, Dutch author)

ANNOTATED EDITION OF MORGA PUBLISHED
Rizal’s outstanding achievement in Paris was the publication in 1890 of his annotated edition of Morga’s Sucesos
.
- printed by Garnier Freres.
- prologue was written by
Professor Blumentritt
upon the request of Rizal
-Rizal dedicated his new edition of Morga to the Filipino people so that they would know of their glorious past

• The title page of Rizal’s annotated edition of Morga reads:
“Paris, Liberia de Garnier Hermanos, 1890”

The Philippines Within a Century
-article written by Rizal which he expressed his views on the Spanish
colonization in the Philippines and predicted with amazing accuracy the tragic
end of Spain’s Sovereignty
in Asia

International Association of Filipinologists
Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong
-another satirical work as a reply to another slanderer,
Fr. Salvador Font
, who
masterminded the banning of his Noli
, in the fall of 1889
-it was published in booklet form in Barcelona, 1889, this satirical pamphlet under the authorship of
“Dimas
Alang”
is a witty satire which ridicules Father Font
Por Telefono
Rizal was accompanied by
Jose Albert
when he moved to Brussels. They lived in a modest boarding house on 38 Rue Philippe Champagne, which was run by two Jacoby sisters (Suzanne and Marie). Later Albert, left the city and was replaced by
Jose Alejandro
, an engineering student
Rizal was the
first to advocate the Filipinization of its orthography
-in this article, he laid down the rules of the new Tagalog orthography and with modesty and sincerity, he gave
credit for the adoption of this new orthography to
Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera
, author of the celebrated work
El Sanscrito en la Lengua Tagala (Sanskrit in the tagalog Language)
which was published in Paris, 1884
July 29, 1890
- another letter to Ponce written at Brussels by Rizal, he announced that he was leaving Brussels at the beginning of the following month and would arrive in Madrid about the 3rd or 4th (August)

“To my Muse’” (A Mi…)
- 1890, Rizal wrote this pathetic poem, it was against a background of mental anguish in Brussels, during those sad days when he was worried by family disasters
MISFORTUNES IN MADRID (August 1890-91)

-Upon arrival in Madrid, Rizal immediately sought help of the Filipino colony, The Asociacion Hispano-Filipina, and the liberal Spanish newspaper in securing justice for the oppressed Calamba tenants
• El Resumen
- a Madrid newspaper which sympathized with the Filipino cause, said: “To cover the ear, open the purse, and fold the arms—this is the Spanish colonial policy

• La Epoca
- an anti-Filipino newspaper in Madrid

1. Jose Ma. Panganiban
, his talented co-worker in the Propaganda Movement, died in Barcelona on August
19, 1890, after a lingering illness
2. Aborted Duel with Antonio Luna
—Luna was bitter because of his frustrated romance with
Nellie Boustead
.
- Blamed Rizal for his failure to win her, although Rizal had previously explained to him that he had nothing to do about it.
-Luna uttered certain unsavory remarks about Nellie, Rizal heard him and angered by the slanderous remarks, he
challenged Luna
, his friend, to a duel. Fortunately, Luna realized that he had made a fool of himself during his drunken state,
Misfortunes
in Madrid
-Wenceslao E. Retana
, his
bitter enemy of the pen
, a talented Spanish scholar, was then a press agent of the friars in Spain.
-He used to attack the Filipinos in various newspapers in Madrid and other cities in Spain.
-Wrote articles that insulted Rizal
-Challenged Retana to a duel

3. Rizal challenges Retana to Duel
Rizal received a letter from Leonor, announcing her coming marriage to an Englishman (the choice of her mother) and asking his forgiveness
4. Infidelity of Leonor Rivera
—toward the closing days of 1890, arose an unfortunate rivalry between Rizal and M.H. del Pilar for supremacy.
- Filipinos were divided into two hostile camps:
the
Rizalistas
the
Pilaristas
.
The situation was becoming explosive and critical. Despite of winning the votes, Rizal graciously
declined the coveted position
5. Rizal-Del Pilar Rivalry
Rizal wrote a brief note thanking his compatriots for electing him as
Responsible
. It was the last time he saw Madrid

BIARRITZ VACATION
-To seek solace for his disappointments in Madrid, Rizal took a vacation in the
resort city of Biarritz
on the fabulous French Riviera. He was a guest of the rich
Boustead
family at its winter residence—Villa Eliada
Frustrated in romance, Rizal found consolation in writing. Evidently, while wooing Nellie and enjoying so “many magnificent moonlight nights” with her, he kept working on his second novel which he began to write in Calamba 1887

March 29, 1891
- the eve of his departure from Biarritz to Paris, he
finished the manuscript of El Filibusterismo
May 30, 1891
-revision of the finished manuscript of El Filibusterismo was mostly completed

EL FILIBUSTERISMO PUBLISHED IN GHENT (1891)
-Rizal was busy revising and polishing the manuscript of El Filibusterismo so that it could be ready for the press
-Rizal had begun writing it in October, 1887, while practicing medicine in Calamba, the following year (1888), in London;
he made some changes in the plot and corrected some chapters already written. He wrote more chapters in Paris and Madrid, and
finished the manuscript in Biarritz
on March 29, 1891. It took him, therefore,
three years to write his second novel

Rizal dedicated El Filibusterismo
to Gom-Bur-Za
(Don Mariano
Gomez, 73 years old; Don Jose Burgos, 35 years old; Jacinto
Zamora, 37 years old)
Unfinished Novels:
Makamisa
- other unfinished novel of Rizal in Tagalog written in a light sarcastic style and is incomplete for only two chapters are finished.
Dapitan
-another novel which Rizal started to write but it is unfinished, written in ironic Spanish. He wrote it during his exile in Dapitan to depict the town life and customs.
The unfinished novel has no title
-still in manuscript form, it is
preserved in the National Library, Manila
-The story of this unfinished novel begins with the solemn burial of
Prince Tagulima
.
-It is said that Rizal was fortunate not to have finsihed this novel, because it would have
caused greater scandal and more Spanish vengeance on him
OPHTHALMIC SURGEON IN HONG KONG (1891-1892)

-Rizal left Europe for Hong Kong, where he lived from November, 1891 to June, 1892. His reasons for leaving Europe were:
(1) life was unbearable in Europe because of his political differences with M.H. del Pilar and other Filipinos in Spain
(2) to be near his idolized Philippines and family

November 20, 1891
-Rizal arrived in Hong Kong
• Rizal established his residence at No. 5 D’ Aguilar Street No. 2 Rednaxola Terrace,
where he also opened his medical clinic

December 1, 1891
- Rizal wrote his parents asking their permission to return home.
-On the same date, his brother-in-law, Manuel T. Hidalgo, sent him a letter relating the sad news of the
“deportation of twenty-five persons from Calamba, including father, Neneng, Sisa, Lucia, Paciano and the rest of
us.”

The Christmas of 1891 in Hong Kong was one of the happiest Yuletide celebrations in Rizal’s life:
For he had a happy family reunion
-
a Portuguese physician
, who became Rizal’s friend and admirer, who helped him to build up a wide clientele. In recognition of Rizal’s skill as an ophthalmic surgeon, he turned over to
him many of his eye cases

• Rizal successfully operated on his mother’s left eye so that she was able to read and write again.

Dr. Lorenzo P. Marques
BORNEO COLONIZATION PROJECT

Rizal planned to move the landless Filipino families to North Borneo (Sabah), rich British-owned island and carve out of its virgin wildness, a
"New Calamba"

Governor Valeriano Weyler
- Cubans odiously called “The Butcher”

Governor Eulogio Despujol
- the Count of Caspe, a new governor general after Weyler
Despujol could not approve the Filipino immigration to Borneo, alleging that
“the Philippines lacked laborers”
and
“it was not very patriotic to go off and cultivate foreign soil.”
DECISION TO RETURN TO MANILA
May, 1892
- Rizal made up his mind to return to Manila.
• This decision was spurred by the following:
(1) to confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization project
(2) to establish the La Liga Filipina in Manila
(3) to prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid that he (Rizal), being comfortable and safe in Hong Kong, had
abandoned the country’s cause


June 20, 1892
- Rizal wrote two letters which he sealed, inscribed on each envelope
“to be opened after my death”
and gave them to his friend Dr. Marques for safekeeping
(1) The first letter, addressed
TO MY PARENTS, BRETHREN, AND FRIENDS.
(2)The second letter, addressed
TO THE FILIPINOS

Immediately after Rizal’s departure from Hong Kong, the Spanish consul general who issued the government guarantee of safety, sent a cablegram to Governor Despujol that the victim
“is in the trap”.


On the same day (June 21, 1892), a secret case was filed in Manila against Rizal and his followers
“for anti-religious and anti-patriotic agitation”
-Rizal’s bold return to Manila in June, 1892 was his second homecoming
-Rizal firmly believed that the fight for Filipino liberties had assumed a new phase: it must be fought in the Philippines not
in Spain.
“The battlefield is in the Philippines,”
he told countrymen in Europe,
“There is where we should meet…
There we will help one another, there together we will suffer or triumph perhaps.”

SECOND HOMECOMING AND THE LIGA FILIPINA
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