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Cognitive, Behavioural and Social Learning Theories
Transcript of Cognitive, Behavioural and Social Learning Theories
Lev Vygotsky ~ Social Development Theory
Erik Erickson ~ Stages of Development
Howard Gardner ~ Multiple Intelligences Theory
Bandura states that social and cultural influences play a key role in students learning through observation and modelling. Children learn behaviours by imitating others and either being rewarded or punished.
Students learn by observing and imitating by paying attention, retention of observed behaviours, producing the behaviour again and having the motivation or reinforcement to want to repeat it.
cognitive, environmental and behavioural: all three forces are interconnected - influencing each other
being consistant in your behaviour management because children learn from their actions as well as the actions and consequences of others.
the teacher has to model the positive behaviour so the students will see and hear what is expected.
give appropriate reinforcements to help keep students motivated
In this theory Vygortsky believes that the child must first learn a skill socially and then they can internalize it later to a cognitive skill. The skills learned as a small child (reading and writing) are used at first just for communication but can later be used for higher order thinking.
Social interaction is very important to the development of cognition. The child first learns the skill socially and then internalizes it after
There is a person in the childs learning known as the more knowledgeable other (MKO) who has better understanding/skills
there is a zone of proximal deveopment (ZPD) which is the distance between the adult or peer teaching/guiding and the ability to do a task independently
Many students need to be explicitly taught social skills and there are many wonderful programs out there as well as cooperative games
assisted learning/scaffolding for teaching a new skill. using the gradual release of responsibility e.g. first the teacher or peer shows the child then helps the child, next the child tries independently
The use of tools and technology to support thinking is very important
computers: word processing, spreadsheets,
research tools: search engines, Dewey decimal system
language tools: dictionary, thesaurus
organizational tools: calendar, day planner, graphic organizer
According to Gardner, there are eight different subtypes of intelligence. A persons abilities and interests define which group or groups they fall into.
Teachers need to plan with all of these different intelligences in mind. Doing a questionnaire or quiz at the beginning of the school year to help you understand each student better.
Many students may not feel intelligent but have a gift for the Arts. Those students need to understand each subtype of this theory holds just as much value as the rest.
The components of this theory lend themselves well to differentiated instruction. Work in body breaks/energizers into each class
Seeing each student for the individual they are. Each student is going to have a subject area they have an interest in or excel at so use that to you advantage - you know have experts!
Albert Bandura ~ Social Learning Theory
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow says that once the physiological, safety, love and esteem needs are met then we can then be able to actualize our full potential.
Students will unlikely work to their full potential if their physiological or safety needs are not being met. A school may help by;
- running a breakfast or snack program
- being proactive with bullying
- access to counselors
- calling CAS or the police if needed
Piaget believed that children go though four different stages of cognitive development. He hypothesized that children may have long transition periods between stages and show signs of both so just know the child's age wasn't a guarantee to know their stage.
classrooms may have students in concrete and formal operational stages
continue teaching using concrete operational teaching strategies and materials but give opportunities to explore hypothetical questions
teach concepts not just facts and let students explore
keep curriculum relevant to students lives and interests
If students hold the ability to hypothesize then focusing on social justice issues may help them see the world as a global citizen. By understanding what stage each child is in it can help with matching teaching strategies to children's abilities.
Sensorimotor approx age 0-2
Preoperational approx age 2-7
Concrete-operational approx age 7-11
Formal-operational approx age 11-adult
Adolescent egocentrism: Assumption that everyone else is interested in their thoughts feelings and concerns.
Formal operations: Mental tasks involving abstract thinking and coordination of a number of variables.
Erikson's theory believes that cognitve and social development are linked and that children go though eight stages of development. He says that society and parental influences have great impact to development.
The eight stages are:
1. Basic trust vs mistrust = birth - 12-18 months
2. Autonomy vs shame and doubt = 18 mths - 3 yrs.
3. Initiative vs guilt = 3-5 yrs
4. industry vs inferiority = 6-12 yrs
5. Identity vs role confusion = adolescence
6. Intimacy vs isolation = young adult
7. Generativity vs stagnation = middle adulthood
8. Ego integrity vs despair = late adulthood
adolescence is the search for identity so doing activities and assignments that focus on developing a strong sense of self would be beneficial
providing many models and resources about career choices, leaders, guest speakers
giving helpful feedback as students try on different roles within the classroom community
A classroom filled with opportunities will help students establish an identity. Filling the year with chances to try on many hats will promote their self concept
e.g. mentoring younger students (reading buddies), community service (adopt a grandparent at local retirement home),and real world work (school garden)
Be the role model - be enthusiastic, demonstrate what you want, think out loud, show the steps of your thinking
positive behaviour = positive reinforcement
class leaders are used to demonstrate and who you pair struggling students with to "show" what to do (help influence)
In Gerdner's Multiple Intelligences theory there are seven-eight different ways in which people can show their intelligence. People have skills and interests in many different areas and to Gardner, there is not just one way to judge intelligences.
Cognitive, Behavioural and Social Learning Theories
Jean Piaget ~ Theory of Cognitive Development
Abraham Maslow ~ Hierarchy of Needs
Modual 2 - Comparison of Cognitive, Behavioural, and Social Learning Theories
In Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs it is said that there are different/graduating levels of needs, once the needs are met in the first level then you can move up to the next. The first four levels are physiological needs and the top level is considered a growth level, reached only when all other needs are met.
Mayers, David, G. (2004). Psychology. Michigan, Worth Publishers.
Alcock, J.E., Carment D.W. & Sadava S.W. (2005). The Textbook of Social Psychology. Toronto, Ontario. Pearson
Woolfolk, A. E., Winnie, P.H. &Perry N.E. (2006). Educational Psychology. Toronto, Ontario. Pearson.
I think the third (belongingness/love needs) and fourth (esteem needs) levels lend themselves well to Tribes type activities and community building activities.
from Tribes by Jeanne Gibbs
Activities for belonging: Community circle pg. 219, accepting others pg. 269, Poem by our tribe pg. 347
Activities for esteem: Gallery walks pg. 238, That's me-That's us