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Personality Tests : Psychology Research Project
Transcript of Personality Tests : Psychology Research Project
Personality Tests Objective Tests We Will Be Examining... Objective personality tests are administered by somebody else
They are usually in the form of a multiple choice, true/false or a standardized test lemon juice test
hand writing analysis
(random internet test) Projective Projective personality tests are not administered by anybody, but instead let the patient assess themselves
Within these tests, the patient is asked questions such as "are you happy?", "are you depressed?", etc.
The first personality profiling system is known as The Four Temperaments/ Four Humors
Many versions of this ancient idea is used in modern psychology
The Four Temperaments can be traced back to the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations; over 5,000 years ago
The general concept of The Four Humors is that the health of the body is related to the elements (fire, water, Earth and air) which in turn were related to body organs, treatments and fluids.
Although the Four Humors can be traced back to the Egyptians and Mesopotamians; it was most noted and recognized in the work of Hippocrates (c.460-377/359 BC; “The Father of Medicine) and in Plato’s (428-348BC) ideas about personality and character.
2,500 years ago, in Greek medicine, it was believed in order to maintain health, people needed an even balance of the four main body fluids (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile); which also came to represent the Four Humors
Explained by Hippocrates; the four bodily fluids represented as followed…. Blood Cheerful, Black Bile Somber, Yellow Bile Enthusiastic, Phlegm Calm
In addition to The Four Humors, there are a few other theorized 4- part patterns dealing with personality and an individual’s wellness; ancient elements (fire, water, Earth, air), 12 signs of the zodiac arranging into 4 sets corresponding to the elements (believed by many to define personality and destiny), the “Four Qualities” (hot/cold, dry/moist), the Four Seasons (Spring ,Summer, Winter, Autumn), and the body organs which are strongly connected to medical theory and the 4 Four Temperaments (liver, lungs, gall bladder, spleen)
The idea that leveling out bodily fluids to balance them and create overall health does not exist in modern times (today) as it was proven a non- reliable treatment
The idea that body fluids, health and personality are connected is not modernly accepted, however, the analysis of personality through the understanding of the Four Temperaments/ Humors is still accepted; The Four Temperaments is used as a personality model but not for treating illness or understanding medical issues First personality profiling system Lemon Juice Test The amount of saliva an individual produces after
having a drop of lemon juice on their tongue, can say something about that individual's personality.This conclusion is connected to The Reticular Activating System (RAS) part of your brain, which is responsible for responding to specific stimuli; such as social confrontation, taste, smell,etc. Therefor, since lemon juice has been proven to be the best taste stimulus, a drop of it on and individual's tongue makes their RAS respond in the form of saliva. You will need.. Lemon Juice (fresh or bottle)
Cotton Wool balls Steps... Put a large drop of lemon juice on your tongue and swish it around in your mouth for approximately ten seconds (do not swallow!)
Take the cotton ball and wipe/ absorb all of the saliva in your mouth
Put the cotton ball on the kitchen scale and weigh it
Record your results and compare to others Research has shown that introverts (people who keep to themselves) produce a very large amount of saliva, as their RAS has increased activity in the presence of stimuli. In the same way that an introverts RAS reacts excessively to a small stimuli such as lemon juice; it does the same with another small stimuli,such as social confrontation, and therefor making it harder for introverts to communicate with others.
On the other hand, extroverts(people who are outgoing and bubbly), produce a very low amount of saliva because there is very little activity in their RAS. Extroverts require a very large stimuli to produce a response, therefor they are more comfortable with social contact (small stimuli) The idea of classifying personality ("personality energy" into two specific groups was created by Carl Gustav Jung. These two groups are Introverted and Extroverted. He defined these two groups as "basic/general attitude type" based solely on an individuals behavior in specific situations. "These groups are differentiated by their particular attitude towards the object and it's libido ; The introverts attitude to the object is an abstracting one ; he is always facing the problem of how libido can be withdrawn from the object...The extravert, on the contrary, maintains a positive relation to the object." Jung detailed that both groups are present in every individual; a person cannot be entirely introvert or entirely extravert; however they are shown in different degrees in each unique individual.
Carl Jung also contributed to the psychology behind personality by introducing the idea that a person's personality ("psycho logic make-up")is always based on two level; unconscious and conscious. Basically, your unconscious and conscious states are always in balance; and if one is more dominant, the other must increase to gain equality. Carl Jung Rorschach Ink Blot Test The Ink Blot Test is a projective personality test made up of 10 inkblots printed onto 5 cards. Within these cards, there are 5 in color and 5 in black and white. It was invented by Herman Rorschach in 1921, when he publicized the idea of psychodiagnostik. Within this test, patients are asked to examine each inkblot and record what they observe or what they make of the blot. This procedure is broken down into 3 steps in the human brain...
1) The individual looks at the card while their brain encodes the inkblot (the stimuli.) Then the brain breaks the stimuli down into possible responses
2) The individual discards the responses that are not right and censors the ones that might be inappropriate
3)the individual selects some of the remaining responses based on their unique styles, influences or traits.
Psychologists use a scoring system called "The Exner Scoring System" to evaluate an individual's responses to the inkblot. This system is broken down into 9 main categories...
Movement- when any movement occurred in the response
Chromatic Color- when color is used in the response
Achromatic Color- when shades are used in the response
Shading Texture- texture is used in response
Shading Dimension- dimension in relation to shading is used in response
Shading Diffuse- shading used in response
Form Dimension- dimension without reference to shading is used in response
Pairs and Reflections- pair or reflection used in response
Overall, an individual's response to each inkblot, based on the 9 categories, can tell a lot about their past and traumatic/ troubling experiences relating to their overall psych or personality. Rorschach believed that the more "dark" interpretations a person made, the more negative or introverted their personality was. On the contrary, the more "happy" interpretations, the more positive or extroverted they were. Hand Writing Analysis The study of handwriting analysis is commonly referred to as graphology. It dates back to approximately 1622 and was first acknowledged by Hypolite Michon.
An individual's style of writing and certain details in their writing can depict and outline their personality and traits/ characteristics. The details include...
Ambition- diagonals (represent direction you are aiming at), high t bars ( your ambitious ideas), strong pressure (how much energy and time you are willing to use to reach your goal)
Self Deception- left looped ovals (ovals symbolize your clarity of thinking; looping them on the left means you kid yourself)
Leadership - Large "caps" (show confidence), strong pressure (shows excessive amounts of energy), Harmonious (shows balancing in action and thinking)
Money Skills - Clear numbers, Margin spacing (shows sense of right approach to do tasks), precise placement of "t" bars and "i" dots (shows accuracy in tasks) Hand writing continued slant- Right slant- indicates that when stimulus of a question is presented writer will reply with impulse, not thinking through response. Generally upright- indicates independence Left slant- indicates emotion and reserve. Writer needs to be true to self first and foremost, can become resentful if others try to get more commitment from them. size- Large- writer is an extravert and out going or this could mean writer puts on an act of confidence. The Left Looped ovals of this individual's handwriting shows their self deception trait and tendency to "kid themselves" Small- indicates a thinker and an academic. The Large "caps", strong pressure and harmonious picture of this individual's writing symbolizes their sense of leadership and balance of thinking and acting Small and delicate- writer is unlikely to be a good communicator, does not find it easy to break new social ground. pressure- Heavy pressure- indicates commitment and seriousness. Sigmund Freud Excessively heavy pressure- writer can get very up tight, reacts quickly to what they view as criticism, act first and ask questions later. Light pressure- sensitive to atmosphere and epithetic to people. Uneven pressure- shows lack of vitality. Word spacing- Sigmond Freud is best known for the development of the theory, psychoanalysis. He concurred and believed that and individual's instinct at the unconscious state is responsible for their personality and behaviors. Freud believed there were 3 main, connected components to an individual's personality; Id, Ego and Super Ego...
Id- contains a person's desire for approval, desires and wants in the id are strictly for pleasure
Ego- turns the id's desire into reality
Super Ego- monitors how the id's wants and needs are met by ego; acts as a "check on powers"
In addition, Freud also believed that there were 5 stages of development in an individual relating to personality...
1)oral (age 0-1)- pleasure from food and drink
2)anal (age 1-2) - toilet training
3)phallic (age 3-5) - boys and girls realize they are different
4)latency (age 6-12) - development suspended
5)puberty - solidifies an individual's personality through the first 3 stages
Freud's idea was that if an individual had more pleasure in one stage than the other, their personality would reflect that. Wide- words saying "give me space". Narrow- indicates a want to be with others, writer may be intrusive and crowding. Line spacing- Wide spacing- indicates a wish to stand back and take a long view. Close spacing- indicates the ability to keep cool under pressure. Internet Personality Tests The overall idea of internet personality tests is quite simple; it asks you questions and you must answer them. Each question is related to a different personality trait/ type and based on your answers, it tells you which personality group you fall into. However, within these tests, there is a lot of room for error and misinterpretation. Some of the things that could skew the results of the test include; not answering truthfully, misunderstanding in a question, doesn't take into account every aspect of an individual's life (past, fears, experiences,etc), very rigid "yes or no" answers, etc. Even though these tests are accessible, free and even fun; we can not trust or rely on all tests, as some of them are not produced from an informed and reliable source. Some tests how ever are quite accurate because they are based on accepted psychological theories. Intro In this presentation we will be examining different personality tests how they work, their origins, and the psychologists who helped to develop them. Conclusion blood ...............cheerful
black bile ........somber
yellow bile ......enthusiastic
phlegm............calm Hippocrates c.370BC In conclusion, there are many different types of personality tests that exist in modern times; each of them with a different origin and inventor. We learned about the main scientists who contributed a great deal to personality psychology (Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung), and even learned about the history of the very first personality test. We also discovered that each unique personality test is based on different personality types, and therefor, we must choose the types of tests we use to diagnose very carefully, in order to get the most accurate results. Personality Psychology is fascinating, and Jade and I learned so much about the topic we have interest in. The above depicts the early Greek model of the four humors. Bibliography www.businessballs.com www.thefreedictionary.com www.psychcentral.com/lib/2011/rorschach-inkblot-test/all/1
www.personalitytest.net Psychologists History http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp http://kisa.ca/personality/ Above are a few tests that we tried and did find were quite accurate in describing our personalities. modern four humors The modern day four humors is broken down into four groups/colors (blue, green, orange, and gold) each color is described by a set of personality traits and based on those traits and what category a person fits into there is a type of personality they have. Based on their colors their are a list of things that annoy or add stress to that person, how that person may come off to other people, and how to effectively communicate with that person; this all come based on a person being categorized in their color. Orange- "Artisan" The colors and the personality traits Self confidence
Makes quick decisions
Gets immediate results
Enjoys solving problems
Able to act in crisis
Quick witted and humorous
Questions the status quo
High need for variety
Direct clear communication
Seeks high viability Blue- "Idealist" Relates well to others
Makes favorable impressions
Creates motivational environment
Good group/team participant
Sensitive to the needs of others
Growth-orientated Green- "Rational" Standard setter
Explores all facts before making decision
Intellectual and insightful
Theoretical and conceptual
seeks "big picture"
Can never know enough
Appears cool,calm, collected
and private time Gold- "Guardian" Well organized and orderly
Preforms in consistent, predictable manner
Develops specialized skills
Creates a stable work environment
Dependable and reliable
Supportive of work requirements
Perfectionist and procedures
Is important to always be prepared
Respects authority and rules
Prefers a structured environment
Conservative and stable
Strives for sense of security
Values order and the status quo
Strong belief in policies, procedures and rules 40% Of the population 10% Of the population 6% Of the population 44% Of the population WWW.INSIGHTLEARNING.COM Communicating with colors Green Listen to their ideas
Don't invade their space
Think ahead to the feature
Provide mental challenges
Support their need for competence
Respect their independence
Ask for their opinions
Help them with everyday details Orange Recognize their talents and skills
Be optimistic and cheerful
Don't limit their freedom
Appreciate their sense of humor
Be competitive and a good sport
Get involved in physical activities
Be adventurous and baring Gold Recognize their responsible actions
Plan ahead and be punctual
Praise their achievements
Appreciate their work ethics
Clearly define expectations
Be dependable and efficient
Be clean and orderly
make and keep commitments Blue Show caring and concern
Spend quality time together
Give creative opportunities
Be supportive and reassuring
Accept their feelings
Cooperate and compromise How they may be perceived Gold May be seen as Rigid
Sets own agenda
Dull boring When in fact they are Responsible
Dependable May be seen as When in fact they are Green Know it all
Cool and aloof
Efficient Orange Hyper
Silly or Goofy
Unstable May be seen as When in fact they are Energetic
Can handle chaos
Risk-taker May be seen as When in fact they are Blue Over emotional
"Head in the clouds"
Gift of the gab
Gets off track
Talks too much
Doormat Deeply caring