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Antebellum/ Civial War

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Carolyn Hynes

on 7 October 2012

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Transcript of Antebellum/ Civial War

Adele Marchant, Carolyn Hynes, Eric Fromke
Family Block US History Antebellum and The Civil War Antebellum Causes of the Civil War (1) Expansionism Manifest Destiny -

The destiny of the United States to spread their democratic ideals and religion westward -- led to the acquisition of Florida, Texas, Oregon Country, Louisiana Purchase, and the Gadsden Purchase of 1853 (Arizona and New Mexico)
Inspired by the Second Great Awakening
Push out other religions by expanding and preaching to them Expansionism and Manifest Destiny eventually led to disputes among the states - Which states should go where? Union or Confederacy? This also eventually built on the underlying issue of slavery and sectionalism between the states. The Transportation Revolution!
Expansionism also led to the development of new methods of transportation, such as Trains! The Transportation Revolution and a steadily increasing population brought along with it the rise of mass production (cotton gin, tobacco) and the need for productivity in farms and heavy industry (2) Sectionalism Sectionalism - As the United States expanded westward in the early to mid 1800's, different regions of the United States began to develop distinct identities The Three Main Sections were: The North The identities of these sections were initially influenced by geography From Pennsylvania to New England and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Appalachian Mountains Characterized by cold winters, poor soil and the Atlantic Ocean So they turned to commerce, shipbuilding and fishing. The north also was known for their factories. The South Stretched from the Chesapeake Bay to Florida, and as far west as the Mississippi River Rich soil - relied heavily on agriculture, plantations, and slave labor to cultivate cash crops The West Lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. It eventually came to be everything west of the Mississippi River Characterized by Cheap, fertile land There were also many Native American Indians and Mexicans living there As America expanded, these new groups began to mix and develop their own cultures based on geography, economy, and religion Sectionalism increased with the rise of political parties
Southerners feared taxation and big government because they needed cheap slave labor, while northern factories and big industry needed government support from taxes Economic Sectionalism
The Northern region was much more urbanized with the development of railroads and canals to connect cities' factories
The Northern economy was built upon industrial society and manufactured goods via workshops, factories and mills
The South, on the other hand, was much more rural as of the mid 1800's
It had little transportation
Little industry
More plantation, agricultural
Needed Slavery*** As the United States grew, so did sectionalism and the issue of slavery Slavery had always been a major issue and a hot topic between the North and South, but it had been suppressed and 'compromised' for years. This didn't really help settle anything long term, just avoid the issue of slavery between the North and South For example:
Missouri Compromise (1820) - Sponsored by Henry Clay, the "Great Compromiser"
Missouri tried to enter as a state, but it couldn't, because it would disrupt the balance between slave states and free states
The Compromise split the Louisiana Territory on a line at latitude 36 degrees 30'
The Compromise "settled the problem"
But nobody was satisfied... Sectionalism was heavily influenced by slavery, but it was also a dispute between two different ways of life - and as Sectionalism grew, so did the issue of slavery Another Example: Compromise of 1850
California wanted entry as a state
People were again worried, because if California came in as a free or slave state, it would tip the scales
Northerners liked the idea of California becoming a free state, while the South hated it
Henry Clay proposed the idea to admit California as a free state, but split New Mexico and Utah in half and opened them up to slavery --> instituted the idea of popular sovereignty- allowing the citizens to decide whether they wanted to allow or prohibit slavery
It increased friction between the North and South (3) Abolitionism With the rise of Expansionism and Sectional differences (Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850), another issue came to the forefront of debate and dispute: Abolitionism The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) In 1854, a bill was introduced that would organize the Great Plains for settlement
The only way the South would vote for it would be if the states were ruled under Popular Sovereignty
It enraged many Northerners, who thought that the Missouri Compromise had placed the Great Plains as off-limits for slavery
People began to feel that slavery would spread quickly, so they formed the Republican Party in 1854 to oppose slavery
As a result, Kansas and the Midwest became a "battleground" of slavery
Both the North and South sent in pro-slavery or abolitionist groups in - they eventually met with violence Some fought for the abolitionist movement peacefully - Dred Scott Dred Scott sued for his freedom
The case eventually reached the Supreme Court
The Court didn't allow him to sue, saying that he was private property
This outraged the North After the election of 1860, some states were already about to secede, as the Democratic Party split into North and South, along with many others As the United States of America grew, different areas began to see themselves as one area or section, and they began to develop differently economically and socially. This, along with the rise of the abolitionist movement in the late 1700s and early 1800s built on the fundamental issue of slavery Grew from the Second Great Awakening, and an overseas revival in which abolitionism "took over" - It also emerged from Uncle Tom's Cabin Union Confederacy Union vs. Confederacy both the North and the South thought the war would be a quick victory The North
had more supplies, people, and a better economy The South
Fighting on own soil and had great military leadership First Battle of Bull Run
first major land battle of the civil war
Win for the South
Wake up call for the North Anaconda Plan
Abraham Lincoln and General Winfield Scott devised a strategy
Surround the south and squeeze it to death
Set up a naval blockade
stop southern trading (cut off supplies) Battle of Antietam
September 17, 1862 in Sharpsburg, Maryland
bloodiest one-day battle in U.S. History
turning point in the war Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln issued a warning to the confederates
return to the union or he would free their slaves
They ignored the warning and Lincoln declared all slaves in rebellious states forever free
Took awhile to take affect but foreshadowed what was to come Battle of Gettysburg
General Lee and 750,000 troops vs. Union force of 95,000
Ended in Union victory and major turning point in the war
Led to the Gettysburg address
lead to a "new birth of freedom" TOTAL WAR
General Grant vs. General Lee Sherman's March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman wage a campaign of destruction through Georgia and the Carolinas African americans still faced racism and were killed in riots over inequality Music
Often sang songs to pass the time when not at war Effects on African Americans
Fled to union lines for safety
some returned to owners
After time allowed "collored troops"
45th Massachusetts Regiment (black unit)
won acceptance for black soldiers
Higher death rates; not given quality guns or supplies Effects on the Soldiers
New weapons --> death
improved guns and canons
Soldiers massed together
easier target with better guns--> blood bath
Often fought in open fields
Poor sanitation and hygiene Government
faced with riots from draft disagreement and taxes on food Women's Contributions to the War
Many disguised themselves and fought
Some women worked behind lines as spies
less suspicious
Provided medical care
houses turned into medical shelters
Men believed nurses were "unlady like"
presence of women in the hospital would distract the soldiers
Forced to form crucial jobs to support the family and war effort
North- worked in factories with ammunition
South- Worked in fields EFFECTS OF THE WAR Follow the Drinking Gourd Causes of the Civil War Effects of the Civil War Becoming increasingly urban Factories, mass production, heavy industry Stretched from Pennsylvania to New England, and as far west as the Appalachians West of the Mississippi New patterns of life emerged, as settlers moving westward mixed their culture with the Native Americans and Mexicans Abraham Lincoln:
The first Republican president ever, Lincoln led the Union to victory in the Civil War and ended slavery in America.

Lincoln's assassination on 14 April 1865 removed his politically moderate influence from the national stage, giving way to a more radical form of Reconstruction. General Grant
Served as commander in chief of the Union army during the Civil War, leading the North to victory over the Confederacy.

Grant later became the eighteenth President of the United States, serving from 1869-77.

Grant accepted Confederate General Robert E. Lee's surrender on 9 April 1865. General Lee
Against secession but he declined Lincoln's offer to command the Union Army.

Declared his allegiance to his home state of Virginia.

Lee commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia until his surrender to General Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. The book increased the hostility of many Northerners toward the South
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