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Generations of Biomaterials

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Diagarajen Carpanen

on 22 July 2013

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Transcript of Generations of Biomaterials

Transition from materials available for different industrial applications into the development of materials with abilities to interact with the biological environment and to elicit specific biological responses.
Sophisticated materials science needs to be developed in order to match the biological complexity at the molecular level.
Feasible. Conclusion To more closely replicate complex tissue architecture and arrangement in vitro.
To better understand extracellular and intracellular modulators of cell function.
To develop novel materials and processing techniques that are compatible with biological interfaces.
To find better strategies for immune acceptance. Challenges Biologically inert
Non-viable
Biocompatible
Mechanically and chemically stable
Amenability to engineering design, manufacturing, and sterilization
Biodegradable
satisfy MHRA Medical Devices Regulation Act or FDA regulations.
Induces cell and tissue integration
“Smart” (i.e., physiologically-responsive)
“Instructional” (i.e., controls cell fate) Requirements of Next Generation Biomaterials Present and future.
Bioengineered implants using bioengineered materials.
Feature: combination of bioactivity and biodegradability.
Examples:
Tissue engineered implants designed to regrow rather than replace tissues
Some resorbable bone repair cements
Decalcified bone matrix (DBM) scaffold for filling bone defects.
Meniscus tissue engineering (polycaprolactone and hyaluronic acid scaffold)
Porous metallic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using titanium alloys Third Generation Biomaterial Ceramic: bioactive glasses (doped with silicon), glass ceramics, calcium phosphates (hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphates)
Application: bone substitutes (fillers) – low load bearing

Metallic: hydroxyapatite coating by plasma spray deposition; chemical modifications to obtain calcium phosphates layers on metallic surfaces (mostly for titanium and its alloys)

Polymers: biodegradable polyglycolide, polyatide, polydioxanone, polyorthoster, polyhy2ydroxyethylmethacrylate (PHEMA), hyaluronic acid
Application: bone substitution; repair of bone fractures(including ligament fixation);cartilage & meniscus repair 1980 - 2000
Engineered implants.
Defined by the development of:
1. bioactive material’s ability to interact with the biological environment to enhance the biological response and the tissue/surface bonding.
2. bio-absorbable materials’ ability to undergo a progressive degradation while new tissues regenerates and heals. Second Generation Biomaterial Metallic: stainless steel, cobalt-chrome-based alloys, Titanium & its alloy (better osseointegration; Tantalum newer material)
Application: fracture plates, screws, joint prosthesis

Ceramic: alumina, zirconia & porous ceramics
Application: femoral heads, acetabular cups

Polymers: silicone rubber, polyethylene, acrylic resins, polyurethanes, polypropylene & polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
Application: small joints (e.g. hand), bone cement, acetabular cups 1960s and 1970s.
Specified by physicians using materials of industrial use.
Most successes were accidental rather than by design.
Feature: bio-inert. First Generation Biomaterial More than 2000 years ago: Romans, Chinese, and Aztec’s used gold in dentistry.
1937: Polymethylmethacrylate(PMMA) introduced in dentistry.
1958: Rob suggests Dacron Fabrics can be used to fabricate an arterial prosthetic.
1960: Charnley uses PMMA, ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene, and stainless steel for total hip replacement.
Late 1960 – early 1970’s: biomaterial field solidified.
1975: Society for Biomaterials formed. History A biomaterial must be:
inert or specifically interactive
biocompatible
mechanically and chemically stable or biodegradable
amenable to engineering design, manufacturing and sterilisation.
satisfy MHRA Medical Devices Regulation Act or FDA regulations. Traditional Requirements of Biomaterials
Replacement of body part that has lost function (total hip, total knee, heart, etc…)
Correct abnormalities (spinal rod)
Improve function (pacemaker, stent)
Assist in healing (structural, pharmaceutical effects: sutures, drug release) Needs A biomaterial
is any substance, natural or synthetic that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, and body function.
is used to make devices to replace a part of a function of the body in a safe, reliable, economic, and physiologically acceptable manner. Introduction Introduction
Needs
Traditional Requirements of Biomaterials
History
Generations of Biomaterials
Requirements of Next Generation of Biomaterials
Challenges
Conclusion Outline D.Carpanen Biomaterials –Past, Present & Future Three generations clearly marked.
Each generation represents an evolution on the requirements and the properties involved. Generations of Biomaterials First Generation Biomaterial continued Second Generation Biomaterial continued
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