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H.W.: Religion in Europe
Transcript of H.W.: Religion in Europe
-Monk Martin Luther noticed many things wrong with Catholic Church:
a. selling of indulgences
b. corruption/misuse of money
c. lack of piety among priests
d. preaching against scripture, requiring good works for salvation
-In 1517, he nails his "95 Thesis" to a church door in Germany. The Reformation begins.
Diet of Worms
-In 1521, Luther was excommunicated
-The Holy Roman Emperor ordered him to trial in Worms, Germany. Luther refused to recant/deny his teachings.
-Condemned to death, he was saved by the Duke of Saxony and hidden in his castle, where Luther translated a Bible in the German language.
-Inspired by Luther, peasants across Germany rise up against the Emperor and the Church
-In the fighting, 100,000 are killed
-Finally, the "Peace of Augsburg" is signed allowing German princes to choose their own religion. Lutheranism is born.
-In 1536, John Calvin published the "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
-In it, he argued that God was all-powerful and humans are sinful. Therefore, people could only convert if God chose them long ago- these people are known as the elect
-This doctrine is known as predestination and Calvinism spread, largely to Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Scotland.
-Another group, Anabaptists, popped up arguing against infant baptism, saying that baptism should only occur after someone makes a statement of faith
-They are partly the origin of modern baptists
-In 1527, Henry VIII, King of England, wanted to divorce his wife because he didn't have a son. The Pope said no.
-Then, Henry VIII started his own Church- the Church of England and seized Catholic land for himself. He then gave this land to his supporters and made them Anglican priests.
-When Henry's daughter Mary came to the throne, she persecuted Anglicans because she was Catholic
-When Mary died, her sister Elizabeth proclaimed that all religions would be accepted.
-The Spanish tried to force England to go Catholic again, but the English destroyed their invading Armada