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Transcript of APUSH
Seneca Falls Convention
Declaration of Sentiments
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott (best known women reformers),
Women became involved in reform though churches, helped spread public education.
Nature as source of personal inspiration which individuals could use to find truth
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau
Temperance Movement: originating in 1820's to eliminate consumption of alcohol
Female Moral Reform Society: Antiprostitution group founded in New York
Founded by Joseph Smith in New York
Disapproval of surrounding communities, Mormons moved to Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, Utah
Asylum Movement: Fought for humane treatment of the insane
American Colonization Society- founded 1817, anti slavery reformers called for gradual emancipation and resettling of slaves in Africa
Yearly conventions with leaders like Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass
Utopian Society Groups:
Shakers: Followers of Mother Ann Lee, preached celibacy and communal living
Oneida Community: Sexual freedom, viewed as one family, free love, socialism
Romanticism: Expression of feelings of tenderness, sadness, or nostalgia in writing Two hypothesis: Native Americans traveled across Beringia
Or moved south in boats along coastal route Clovis Technology Pleistocene Overkill Desert Culture
Development of Farming: miracle crops, maize and potatoes, began 5,000 years ago Resisted Revolution Clans Mississippian Society: Maize farmers live in permanent settlements, climate, violence , and social disorder made farming more difficult The Southwest: Rancherias, Pueblo People (known for unique dwellings of stacked apartments), Kachinas, irrigation, desert farmers The South: Practice Mississippian culture patterns, farmed, fished, and hunted, agricultural festivals The Northeast: varied geography, Iroquois lived in region for 4,500 yrs, intensification of farming led to chiefdoms Portuguese: established Atlantic Slave Trade, longer sea voyages made possible by technological innovations Columbus: voyage financed by Spain, Explored Caribbeans, Found spices and gold, Most important contribution was discovery of clockwise circulation of Atlantic winds and currents, Tried to enslave all natives, Tainos resisted, Spaniards reacted with unrestrained violence Spain's Empire
Encomienda (forced labor), harsh tactics on Aztecs, Christian missions, Treaty of Tordesillas, Mestizos, Mulattoes, New Mexico, Ponce de Leon- named Florida in 1513 Disease, warfare, famine, lower birthrates caused native population to decrease French
Fish, fur trade(monopolized in 17th century), based on commerce rather than conquest, 1608 Champlain founded Quebec, Beaver Wars(1640-1680) Pequot War(1637)
King Philip's War(1675-76) Indentured Servants to Slavery
Slaves introduced in 1619 Bacon's Rebellion(1675-76) led by Nathaniel Bacon Culpeper's Rebellion(1677) Glorious Revolution(1688) Pueblo Revolt(1680) King William's War(1689-1697) 1701- English impose royal governments on colonies Enlightenment- Intellectual movement stressing the importance of reason and the existence of discoverable natural laws
Many colleges formed (Harvard, Yale, William and Mary)
Many of British colonies could read and New England developed a public education
New literary form Great Awakening-North American religious revival in 18th century New Lights-people who experienced conversion
Old Lights-condemned emotional enthusiasm church membership grew Opposition to rationalist approach to religion Population Growth and Immigration 1700 to 1750: 290,000-1.3 million colonists
High fertility rates fueled population growth British colonies grew more rapidly
and encourage immigration French sent engages
English, Welsh, Scots Highlanders and Irish
Dutch, German, Swiss, African Transatlantic trade and the growth of seaports Back Country
Families- planted corn and raised hogs, hunted Growth of plantation economies and slave societies began during1720's
Violence and warfare(settlers vs. Indians)
settlers disdain for rank
Women-domestic workers African Americans created new culture with white
emphasis on trading
Sugar played a key role in expansion of slavery
Slave codes Middle Passage-voyage between West Africa and the New World slave societies Economics and federal government spurred exploration of West.
Companies competing for fur trade were one source of exploration.
After Louisiana Purchase, federal government sponsored several expeditions to map new territory.
Expansion followed exploration raising the "Indian problem" again.
Open lands motivated thousands of Americans to follow overland trails to Oregon and California.
The Oregon settlement led to a dispute with Great Britain that was resolved diplomatically.
Southwest, trade led to settlement and forts along the Santa Fe Trail.
Americans also settled in Texas, but they eventually rebelled and founded the Republic of Texas, creating a conflict that affected 1844 election.
Tensions with Mexico, partly fueled by expansionist ideology, led to war.
Public opinion was divided on war, but US obtained present-day Southwest as result of the war
California and Gold Rush:
Russians came first to Spanish California but were followed by Americans.
After US gained California, discovery of gold spurred immigration by Americans, Chinese, and Mexicans, among others.
Mining camps grew rapidly but most proved temporary settlements.
God-given right for Americans to spread democracy and expand territory
Growing pride in democracy raised American confidence.
Addition of land triggered growing debate over the extension of slavery. 10. The Crisis of the Union (Chapter 15) The sectional split between North and South had been developing since Missouri Compromise.
The North and South divided in slavery creating two opposing sections with very different viewpoints on the future of US.
Many Americans in 1850s felt issue of slavery had to be permanently settled and expected their political parties to reflect their opinions.
The issue of the extension of slavery reached a boiling point in 1850.
The Compromise of 1850 addressed several major points of tension. (Five bills passed in September 1850, regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War. Slave trade banned in DC, Fugitive Slave Act, California's admission as free state, New Mexico and Utah were allowed to use popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery, the Republic of Texas gave up lands that it claimed in present day New Mexico and received $10 million to pay its debt to Mexico.)
The election of 1852 showed the political party system was weakening while expansionist movements indicated a troubled future
The Kansas-Nebraska Act (popular sovereignty) triggered a violent confrontation between antislave and proslave forces.
Nativism (protecting the interests of native-born inhabitants against those of immigrants.) emerged as a growing political force.
The political party system underwent major changes. Whigs disappeared and Republicans rose in the North.
The election of 1856 was won by Democrats, but the strong Republicans indicated future problems.
The Dred Scott decision.
The economic Panic of 1857 (banking crisis that caused a credit crunch in the North, less severe in the South) made the dispute worse.
John Brown’s raid in Virginia.
The election of 1860 indicated that few were willing to compromise on issue of slavery.
Lincoln’s election prompted southern states to secede from the Union, many southerners saw him as a purely northern president.
As northern leaders discussed what to do about the secession, the South formed the Confederacy.
Lincoln’s inauguration indicated he had no desire for war 11. The Civil War (Chapter 16) Colonial governments and imperial policy All trade conducted in English or colonial ships
Channeling of colonial trade through English colonies
Colonists prohibited from large-scale manufacture of certain products
Mercantilism (government intervenes in economy)
Navigation Acts The American Revolutionary Era, 1754-1789 The French and Indian War Last of the Anglo-French colonial wars
Ended with France's defeat Imperial Crisis in British North America Whigs denounced unchecked exercise of power
Sugar and Stamp Act caused people to launch
nonimportation movement (Declaratory Act repealed Stamp Act No taxation without representation
Virtual and Actual Representation
Sons of Liberty- opposition group
Boston Massacre Declaration of Independence War for Independence Key factor- popular support for American cause
Continental Army- led by George Washington
Cornwallis led British
Loyalists- opposed independence
Victories at Trenton and Princeton revived American cause
France allied with America and Indians with the British
Took place mostly in South
Britain's surrender at Yorktown Articles of Confederation and State Constitutions Created the first national government of limited powers
No national judiciary, nor separate executive branch, congress sole authority, no congressional authority to raise troops or impose taxes
Thirteen States plus Vermont
Property requirements for office holding in Maryland
Bill of Rights Treaty of Paris Land Ordinances of 1785 Federal Constitution New Jersey and Virginia Plans
Great Compromise (states equally represented in House but proportional in Senate) Establishment of supreme court
Expanded Congress powers Federalists and Antifederalists First 8 amendments (freedom of religion and expression) The Early Republic 1789-1815 Washington, Hamilton, & National Government George Washington- 1st president (wanted disinterest in European affairs)
Hamilton ran Treasury (proposed to charter national bank and fiscal program)
Judiciary Act of 1789 and Judicial Review
Wanted to preserve neutrality
Intercourse Act and Jay's Treaty
Federal commitment to the preservation of the Union Federalists and Republicans Federalists (Hamilton's supporters) wanted sharing of powers between national gov. and state
Jefferson's Republicans favored limited powers of national gov. and placing interests of farmers over those of financial and commercial groups Education for Women Slowly girls joined boys in common schools
People argued for better-educated women The second great awakening Religious revival among black and white southerners (1790) Beginnings of Jefferson's Presidency 3rd president and marked the peaceful transition from one political party to another
envisaged a nation of small family farms
promised to cut all internal taxes, reduce the size of the army and eliminate debt
federal gov. small and mostly everything determined by states
Marbury vs. Madison
3 branches of government War of 1812 Expansion and Indian Resistance Louisiana Purchase for 15 million, doubled the size of US territory, and brought without approval (1803)
Relentless cycle of invasion, resistance, and defeat
Pan-Indian Military Resistance Movement War Hawks pushed for War w/Britain
Fought between US ans Britain
1812-1815 over British restrictions on American shipping
President James Madison
White House burned Battle of New Orleans (Ameican victory)
Treaty of Ghent (ended the war) Missouri Compromise Growth of Slavery Cotton supported & demanded slavery
Northern states abolished slavery
Internal slave trade (broke up families)
African American church Transportation Revolution Transformation of the Economy and Society in Antebellum America 1800-1840
access in own cities and towns to commerial goods
National Road in 1808 Canals and Steamboats (Erie Canal) help make towns instant cities on canals
Fueled economic growth Beginnings of Industrialization and Social structures Market Revolution- improvement in transportation, commercialization, and industrialization
moved into larger market economy
New technology and workers concentration in factories
Slater's mill and Lowell Mills
Children and women in the workforce
Wealthy elite, small professional group, prosperous farmers and wealthy artisans, yeoman farmers, laboring poor, and paupers Immigration and Nativist Reaction Surge of immigrants fueled growth of cities
Irish Immigration and German Immigration caused by Potatoe Famine and problems in country
Set up Ethnic neighborhoods Planters, yeoman farmers, and slaves in the Cotton South Yeoman-Independent farmers who depended on their neighbors for assistance and slavery linked them with large planters
Planters- largest group were small yeoman then there was the planter elite who were a small percentage of the population who owned slaves (paternalistic ideology)
Slaves- family and the African American church and parents tried to teach their children. They had long hours to work each day and bad living conditions The transformation of politics in
Antebellum America Emergence of the second party system Jacksonian democracy and its successes and limitations Federal authority and its opponents: judicial federalism, the Bank War, tariff controversy, and states' rights debates Whigs and Democrats
Democrats- favored expansion, distaste for interference from government, believed in rights of yeoman farmers (for Andrew Jackson who won the 1832 and 1828 elections)
Whigs- supported Henry Clay's American System, the Bank, a protective tariff, internal improvements, government intervention (won elections of 1840) The Bank War-political strugle between President Andrew Jackson and the supporters of the 2nd Bank
Jackson refused to renew the charter of the Bank
Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Gibbons v. Ogden, and Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
All three cases involved federal reversal of decisions made at the state level, plus how Supreme Court weakened the powers of the state
Nullification Crisis (1830's)-Upset people in South Carolina who attempted to nullify federal law
People upset with high tariffs because duties raised the cost of goods imported The Origins of the New South Most African Americans hoped to become self-sufficient farmers and believed they were entitled to land
Sharecropping - labor system whereby landowners gave laborers a house, farm animals, and tools in exchange for a share of the laborers' crop
nearly 75% of black Southerners were sharecroppers nativism and racism arose
institution of Jim Crow laws led to violence against African Americans
reform dissipated into racism
mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states
"separate but equal"
Disfranchisement- is the revocation of the right of suffrage
Blacks gathered to promote civil rights and suffrage large-scale investment created corporations that grew to mammoth sizes, produced for national and international markets
created wealthy men like, Andrew Carnegie and John. D. Rockefeller.
Mechanization takes command greatly increasing productivity
Mass marketing convinced people to buy company goods over local goods
Packingtown an example of how the country is industrializing manufactoring, the center of Chicago meatpacking, and full of the odor of the industry Development of the West in the Late Nineteenth Century The transcontinental railroad was finished in 1869
three more railroads in the 1880s created an extensive transportation network
advances in communication and transportation helped the westward movement of industry
The light bulb was invented and elecricity became the main source of power Mining Towns – gold, silver, and copper found in CO, AZ, CA, OR, WA, AK, & SD
Unions began to secure 8 hour workdays and worker’s compensation
Homestead Act 1862 – 160 acres for free, but must improve land and live on it for five years, or a settler could buy it for $1.25 an acre for only six months
World’s Breadbasket, commercial farms employed the most extensive and intensive agricultural methods in the world
Timber Culture Act, National Reclamation Act, General Land Revision Act, and Forest Management Act all haveing to do with the environment At the close of the Civil War 360,000 Indians still lived in Trans-Miss. West, the Great Plains
Indians were moved onto reservations
Indian wars- Cheyenne, Great Sioux War, Apaches, and Nez Perce Western railroads encouraged settlement
2 million Europeans settled the Great Plains between 1870-1900 Industrial America in the Late Nineteenth Century Vertical Integration- they own a steel mill, buy out all businesses that have to use your steel and cut out the middle man and you make your own raw materials to selling and shipping
Horizontal Combination- monopolizes the steel industry take over all steel businesses, focus on steel
Knights of Labor was a labor organization and brought together wage earners regardless of skill to organize widely against wage slavery
American Federation of Labor accepted the wage system and sought to bargain with companies
In the South the new mills in the four cotton-manufacturing states had production far surpassing New England mills Piedmont, had long-established farms and plantations gave way to railroads, textile factories, mill villages, and cities Cities grew at double the population of the nation
largest cities were New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Boston, and Baltimore
80% of African Americans in the North lived in urban areas
Women outnumbedg young men in the east coastlooking for jobs
Chicago had a population that was 45% foreign born The Social Gospel was a growing number of clergy who called for reconcilitaion of social reality with Christian ideals Social Darwinism, is like the survival of the fittest Urban Society in the Late Nineteenth Century Immigrants found the US had a better material life, but they had to work much harder, their suicide rates and alcoholism soared Public education grew with business, Public high schools saw increasing attendance, but still only served only 4% of children between fourteen and seventeen were enrolled in school Agricultural colleges and developed alongside liberal arts colleges African Americans were often excluded from colleges Factories were near waterways, goods could be transported and chemicals dumped Tenements were built to maximize space Mass transportation made it possible for workers to live farther from their place of employment Coal burning for fuel and heat contributed to air pollution, noise continued to rise, cities were overcrowded and dirty spredding tuberculosis, smallpox, scarlet fever, etc Cities experienced a building boom streets followed a grid pattern richer communities had mansions and townhouses, ublic library, fine arts and science museums, and an orchestra The Gilded Age favored the growth of a class united by the pursuit of leisure and money, forming national networks the rich played new amateur sports or went yachting A new middle class formed included both professionals and a number of salaried employees, mostly specialized workers, they lived in suburbs Parks were made for sports, picnics, and lovers’ trysts Baseball, a sport of gentlemen and Union soldiers, became a national pastime Indian Removal Act and Trail of Tears
Showed the power the federal government had
Failures- consulted with an informal group (Kitchen Cabinet), imposed own style, hardly taking in other cabinet members ideas, said that federal funding for internal transportation improvements was unconstitutional, and the Specie Circular
Strengthened the executive
branch Politics of Reconstruction: End of Civil War raised issues about dealing with the South and the 4 million ex-slaves. Disagreement between the plans of presidents Lincoln and Johnson versus Congress for reconstruction of the South. Radical Republicans (advocated harsh treatment of the south and wanted end of slavery from the start of Civil War) succeeded in getting constitutional amendments to guarantee the rights of African Americans. Fifteenth amendment- 1869, right of American men to vote regardless of race 12.Reconstruction The Meaning of Freedom: End of slavery created new opportunities/challenges for African Americans. African Americans began to travel the country and attempted to build new communities to accommodate their new status and conditions. Black churches and schools were center of these communities. Political establishments were also attempted.Economic and social realities of postwar South severely limited job options. Southern whites tried to further limit opportunities of the former slaves by enacting Black Codes and condoning violence by groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. Southern Politics and Society: Republicans constituted a minority in the South and faced great challenges in developing the party.During Reconstruction, South was brought back into the Union with Republican hopes of having the South follow northern development.A variety of factors plagued attempts to build a “New South” following northern economic trends. . Reconstructing the North: Northern economy continued to industrialize and create large corporations. Staple of development was railroad construction. Reconstruction would fail because the Radical Republicans lacked political influence and the Republican Party became identified with northern business interests that didn’t care about African Americans, finding it profitable to ally with the old planter elite. The depression of 1873 caused distress and increased tension between laborers and capital. 1876 election: (Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Samuel Tilden) Compromise of 1877 installed Republican Hayes in the White House and gave Democrats control of all state governments in South, ending reconstruction. Populism and Progressivism 3 attitudes
Anger over excesses of capitalism and urban growth
Social cohesion and common bonds
Need for citizens to intervene actively Women
Settlement house movement
Birth control-Margaret Sanger
Important movements challenged traditional relationships and attitudes Origins of progressivism
Urban reformers sought to break alliances between bosses and business leaders
City commission and city manager
Initiative referendum and recall
Many feared immigrants in large cities threatened stability of democracy
Urban ghettos By 1930 47% of kids 14-17 were enrolled in schools Roosevelt
Faced growing public concern with rapid business growth
Pure food and drug act
Preservation of natural environment Wilson-New Freedom
Program for limited government intervention
federal reserve act
federal trade comission
underwood-simmons act Black America
Web Du Bois