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World Geo Ch. 19 and 20: Nile River, Sahara and Sahel Deserts

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Bryan Poepperling

on 7 April 2016

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Transcript of World Geo Ch. 19 and 20: Nile River, Sahara and Sahel Deserts

The Nile River, Sahara, and Sahel Desert
World Geo Chapters 19 & 20

The Beginnings of the Nile
Standards and Objectives
Objectives:

1. Locate and describe the Nile River, Sahara Desert, and Sahel Desert

2. Explain how people who live near the Nile have used it throughout their lives

3. Explain how people adapt to life in the Sahara and Sahel Desert regions

SS.912 G3.2, SS.912 G3.5, and SS.912 W3.13
Where Two Niles Meet
Across Egypt: Floodplains and Delta
Welcome
To Africa!

Sahara Desert
Sahel Desert
Sub-Sahara Africa
Nile River
Geographic Setting
Through the Desert
- And -
Geographic Setting
Adapting to the Desert Environment
Adapting to Life in the Oasis Environment
Adapting to Life in
the Sahel Environment
Ticket out of the Door L1 Ch.20

1. Where are the Sahara and Sahel Deserts located in Africa?

2. Describe the process of desertification, and name one problem that can result from it.

3. How do people adapt to life in the Sahara and Sahel Desert regions?
- Thousands of years ago, the Nile River gave life to ancient Egypt, and today it remains a key part of Egyptian life
- The Nile flows from the Eastern highlands in Africa down to the Mediterranean Sea
Name three countries
it flows through


- The Nile River has
two main branches:
1. The Blue Nile
2. The White Nile

- Every year, the waters of the Nile rise and fall
because of what?
The most important use of the Nile is FARMING
- The
water cycle
moves water
through the environment, with
some ending up in rivers like the Nile:
1. Water evaporates into the clouds

2. Water vapor condenses in the atmosphere

3. Water vapor becomes heavy and falls
to the ground as precipitation (rain, snow, sleet,
or hail)

4. Some water that hits the ground soaks in the ground: infiltration

5. Some water runs off the ground into streams: runoff
- The Nile River starts in
the Eastern African highlands

- The main source of the
Blue Nile is: Lake Tana

- The main source of the White Nile is: Lake Victoria
- The White Nile crosses the
plains of Sudan through a
huge swamp: the As Sudd
- The Blue Nile crosses the
Ethiopian highlands
- In north-central Sudan the two branches of the Nile finally meet -
- They meet in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan -
- North of Khartoum the Nile
flows through six cataracts; rapids or low waterfalls where water cascades over rock cliffs
- North of Khartoum, the
Nile flows through one of the harshest landscapes in the world
- After the Nile flows through the cataracts it reaches Lake Nasser between Sudan
and Egypt
- Aswan Dam makes Lake Nasser one of the largest reservoirs in the world
- Two reasons why it was built: pg. 293
- In Egypt, the Nile flows through
floodplains
and fans out to a large
delta
near the river's end
- Approximately 95% of all Egyptians live along the Nile
- For thousands of years, the Nile River has served as important farmland that allowed Egyptians to create one of the greatest early civilizations
- The Nile flows through the center of the city of Cairo, capital of Egypt
- The Sahara stretches across most of North Africa, roughly an area that is equal to the area of the United States
*The Sahara is the
largest desert in the world!*
Countries that are in
the Sahara:
- What are trade winds?
- This region receives more precipitation than the Sahara, but it often suffers from long periods of drought
- Many people picture the Sahara
as a sea of burning sand but its landscape is very diverse:
- Temperatures can soar above 100 degrees during the day and drop below freezing at night
Who are Tuareg people?
- Technology (phones) help these people
survive in the desert
- Each oasis in the desert is a welcoming sign: palm trees and fresh water inside a sea of sand
- They are formed by two ways:
Oasis animals:

Oasis plants:
- Economic activities in the oasis:

- Water problems in oasis settlements:

- Drought
is an unfortunate
but true fact of life
throughout the desert
Drought=
- Many people in the
Sahara are farmers or herders of animals: they
can cause....
- Desertification -
worn out soil and
loss of plant life
- Deforestation -
cutting down trees
The seasons! The changes in river level occur because of the
water cycle
- What do people use
the Nile River for?
- The Nile Delta became the richest farmland in Africa, and some of the richest farmland in the world
Ch. 19 Ticket out of
the Door L.1
1. Where is the Nile located in Africa?

2. How does the Nile River rise and
fall every year? Explain.

3. Why is the Nile River so important to
the people of Egypt?
Winds that blow across north Africa help keep the region dry

- As the trade winds pass over the Sahara they pick up any moisture from the ground, so little that no clouds form: this means the sun beats down and makes the Sahara even drier
*- The Sahel lies on the southern edge of the Sahara*
Where is the Sahel Desert
located?
Ergs - giant sand dunes
Regs - gravel-covered plains
Hammadas- high rock-covered flat lands
Wadis - dry river beds that can fill up quickly during a rainstorm
What is the desert climate
like?
Nomads who raise animals and lead camel across the desert
- Known as "Blue Men of the desert"
- 1. Underground springs that
bubble up to the surface
- 2. Human-created oasis by
drilling to find water
Camels, gazelles, lizards
Date palms, Acacia trees
1.trading goods (foods and goods
brought by camels)
2. Growing cash crops (dates, wheat,
barley, vegetables)
1. water transportation
2. water shortages
- no plant life
- winds carry soil away
- land transforms into desert
BOTH can destroy the land
and turn it into a

desert
Full transcript