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Mythology

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Carole Trevey

on 27 September 2013

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Transcript of Mythology

Mythology
Religions
By: Madi Murphy, Madeline Williams, Patricia Blackmon, Chad Gunter, Carole Trevey
Pre-Columbian (Aztec)

Ancient Egypt
Buddhism
After-life Myth
The spirit would begin its journey by crossing a wide river and then pass through a gate guarded by monsters. The deceased then would have to go to the "Hall of Two Truths" to be judged. The persons would be accused in court on forty-two different crimes. He would have to answer the charges. As he is answering to these charges his heart would be put on a scale and weighed against a feather. If a person’s heart was lighter than the feather, then they would be allowed to pass and join the gods. The feather represents truth, and the heart being lighter would indicate that there was not deceit in the person. If the heart was not lighter than the feather, a monster would devour the heart. Without the heart, the person would have no memory or personality and no chance for eternal life.
Creation Myth
At first there were only the waters of Nun. A hill called Ben-Ben rose up out of the waters. The first god Re-Atum stood on this hill. From him, Shu (god of air) and Tefnut (goddess of moisture) were created. They had two children (Geb, god of the earth, and Nut, goddess of the sky). Shu lifted Nut up so that she became a canopy over Geb. Nut and Geb had 4 children named Oriris, Isis, Seth, and Nephthys. Osiris was the king of the earth and Isis was the queen. Osiris was a good king, and he ruled over the earth for many years. Seth was jealous, became angry, and killed Osiris. Osiris went down into the underworld and Seth remained on earth and became king. Osiris and Isis had one called Horus. Horus battled against Seth and regained the throne. After that, Horus was the king of the earth and Osiris was the king of the underworld.
Myths of Sacrifice or Ritual
When a Pharaoh dies, the servants are sacrificed as well so they can continue serving the Pharaoh in the afterlife.
Morality Myth
Maat was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, law, morality, and justice, and was personified as a goddess. She represents morality, and it is every individuals job to do good, so as not to upset her. Also, one of the Pharaoh's main jobs was to maintain maat (order) within the society.
Creation Myth
Buddhism believes that the universe is constantly destroyed and is re-evolving over a period of millions of years. The first life formed on the surface of water, and simple organisms evolved into complex organisms. These processes are without a beginning or end. Our present universe is just a slot in this never-ending process
Buddhists believe in reincarnation. After death, they take on a new body in the next life.
• Three fortunate realms, three unfortunate realms
o Realm of demigods, of gods, of men
o Animals, ghosts, and hell- suffer untold suffering
• Realm of man offers an opportunity to achieve enlightenment (Nirvana)- spiritual bliss to be a human

Ritual Myth
Mantras- sacred sounds that are believed to possess supernatural powers. They are chanted during mediation with the aid of mala beads for counting. Mantras are used for protection from evil and misfortune
Hinduism
Myths to explain the unknown: Calendar
Nut, Ra's wife was in love with the god Geb. When Ra discovered her betrayal, he was furious. He forbid her from having children on any of the 360 days that made up the year at that time. This broke Nut's heart, so she asked her friend Thoth to help her. After some thinking, Thoth came up with an idea. He needed Silene, the moon goddess, to help him because her light rivaled that of Ra. He asked her if he could have a seventh of her light, and she agreed. This is the reason that the moon wanes every month. Then, Thoth took the light from the moon goddess and added five days to the calendar to make 365 days. Now, Nut had five days on which she could have children without disobeying Ra.
Creation
Creation Myth
Story of birth, death, and rebirth
Believed that the universe did have an actual beginning
Dual God Ometecuhtli/Omecihuatl created itself
This god was good and bad, chaos and order, male and female
It had four children representing the four directions (Huizilopochtli – South, Quetzalcoatl – East, Tezcatlipoca – West, Xipe Totec – North)
These gods began to create, but they had a problem…all their creations would fall into the water and were eaten by the sea monster Cipactli
Four Gods went to war with the monster and finally destroyed him
From this creature the universe was created, all 13 heavens stretch into her head, the earth was created in the middle, and her tail reaches down to the nine underworlds (Mictlan)
Vishnu was sleeping over an empty ocean
He awoke and Brahma sprouted from a lotus from his navel
Brahma was told to create the universe
He also created Saraswati, his daughter and wife
She turned herself into various animals to escape him
Brahma turned himself into the male form of each to pursue her
Myth Explaining the Unknown
Calendars:
1.) Tonalpohualli: The sacred calendar that divides the year and assigns each segment to be ruled over by a certain god. This calendar system honors the Aztec tradition in mythology that of constantly warring gods. By giving a different section of the year, as well as different social groups, ect., the gods are kept from going to war and destroying the universe. This calendar is another way for humans to do their part to prevent the universe from being destroyed. It is a 260-day calendar, divided into 20 months, called trecenas, of thirteen days. Each trecena is ruled over by a different god. The priests used this calendar to determine lucky days for planting crops, building houses and going to war.

2.) Xiuhpohualli: The 365-day solar calendar, divided into 18 months of 20 days. Each month is divided into four five-day weeks. The five leftover days were considered unlucky days, called nemontemi. Aztec rituals and sacrifices were governed by this calendar.

Sacrifice/Ritual Myth
Aztec priests often performed human sacrifices
Victims were usually prisoners of war
In more important ceremonies, Aztecs of high rank (like warriors) volunteered themselves to the gods

Afterlife Myth
Morality Myth
The Mexica Tribe focused on morality as establishing balance.
The world was seen as constantly shifting with the ever-changing teotl.
Morality focused on finding the path to living a balanced life, which would provide stability in the shifting world
Meditation- form of mental concentration that leads to enlightenment and freedom. They are used to detacth from the external world and the thoughts of joy to experience tranquility
Afterlife
Upanayana Ritual
Morality
Funeral Myth
Most Hindus are cremated
Traditions vary but usually before cremation a lamp is placed by the head of the body, prayers are sung, rice balls (pindas) are put in the coffin, the body is sprinkled with water, and flowers are put around the neck
Eldest son says Vedic prayers over the body and lights the fire
Incense and clarified butter added to fire
Ashes sprinkled into water (River Ganges, if possible)
Family mourns for 12 days
By day 13, body has been reincarnated
Usually for boys (but girls sometimes allowed)
Typically marks a boy's beginning his formal education (but can differ by regionally or based on social standing)
Boy is given a sacred thread with 3 strands
Strands mean: debt to teachers, to parents and ancestors, and the sages (or Brahman)
A boy wears 1 thread, married men 2, and married fathers wear 3
Goal is to be freed from samsara (reincarnation)
Do this by generating karma through acting in accordance with dharma
If you are not united with Brahman, you are reincarnated based on your karma
Good karma = higher caste
Bad karma = subhuman (Like a dog)
Karma is the present condition of your soul
Your past decision determine its state
Good, intentional actions in accordance with your dharma result in good karma
After a person dies, he/she must overcome the perils of the Underworld Way (deserts, mountains, confrontations with the serpent or snake, etc.)
The soul would arrive before Miclantecutli, where it would stay for 4 years.
The final stage required the help of the man's dog, sacrificed at his death, to travel across the Ninefold Stream, and then hound and master, to enter the eternal house of the dead, Chicomemictlan.
Patricia Blackmon
Carole Trevey
Pima
Creation Myth
The Earth was formed by "Earth Doctor", who himself evolved from a dense cloud of darkness. He made the plants and animals, and a race of never-dying humans, who by their increase so crowded the earth that he destroyed his whole creation and made a new world with a new race subject to thinning out by death. Another hero god is "Elder Brother", and prominent place is assigned to Sun, Moon, Night, and Coyote
After-life
The spirit of dead goes to a land of the dead “below the East.” To ensure this, they buried their dead facing East in the ground.
Sacrifice or Ritual Myth
Myth Explaining the Unknown
Morality Myth
• Three fortunate realms, three unfortunate realms
o Realm of demigods, of gods, of men
o Animals, ghosts, and hell- suffer untold suffering
• Realm of man offers an opportunity to achieve enlightenment
(Nirvana)- spiritual bliss to be a human

Meditation- form of mental concentration that leads to enlightenment and spiritual freedom
Buddhists believe that the world is constantly destroyed and re-evolved over a period of millions of years. The first life formed on the surface of water into a simple to complex organism. The universe is changed by natural causes. Our current universe is a spot in this endless sequence.
One must accept the Four Noble Truths and follow the Eightfold Path for enlightenment
Funeral Ritual
Before death, monks come to the dying home and chant verses to comfort the family. Buddhist believe in the Indian custom of burning the body. When preparing for the funeral fire, the monks chant to release one's good energy from their fading personality. Gifts ar eleft and the goodwill helps the lingering spirit of the death person.
The purpose of life is to develop compassion for all living things without discrimination and to work for their good, happiness, and peace. Also, to develop wisdom leading to the realization of the ultimate truth
The North Wind warned the people of the Pima tribe that the Sky Spirit would send a flood if they were not honest with one another and living in peace. Suha, Shaman of the Pimas told the people of the North Wind’s warning. The people mocked the North Wind and ignored all of the warnings. Suha and his wife believed the North Wind and set to work on an ark. It stormed for many moons before they could again descend from the Superstition Mountains.

Mantras- sacred sounds that are believed to possess supernatural powers. Repeated during meditation
Ritual Myth
Myths of After-life
Buddhists believed in reincarnation. After death, one takes on a new body in the next life.
Morality Myth
Madeline Williams
Well into the twentieth century and continuing in parts today, there were native traditional public ceremonies for rain, farming, hunting, war, and other activities; and there was an elaborate, generally private (performed at home) development of ritual cures for sicknesses caused by taboo violations.

The warriors of Cactus Village went out on a rabbit drive, for they believed the gods had favored them that year. As they went to their usual hunting grounds near Slanting Mountain (Superstitions) one of the warriors, Hick-vick (Woodpecker) realized he only had two of his four arrows. The Chief sent him back to the village to get his arrows. On the way there a beautiful maid stopped him and offered her pinole to him. He took some and suddenly became an eagle with no head. “Ha, ha, ha,” laughed the old witch. “I mixed ground eagle feathers in the pinole. Hereafter you will be Eagleman.” When the warrior didn’t return to the hunting party, the Chief and the warriors went in search of Hick-vick. They came to the river to discover a giant eagle with a man’s head and a witch running in the opposite direction. The Chief saw this in sadness and explained. “Once the witch was a beautiful maiden. But she was proud and disobeyed her parents; the gods changed her into an ugly old witch. She lives in a cave on the side of Slanting Mountain (Superstitions), and now and then she comes out to bewitch someone; it means the gods are angry. Let us return to our village at once.” After that Eagleman would go down to Cactus Village in search for food. The people decided he must be killed before he ate every last one of them.
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