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Sodium Project

Dr. K, Block C.

John Asidera

on 20 March 2013

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Transcript of Sodium Project

By John Asidera Sodium Project Introduction Research: Sodium Our purpose is to inform our audience the reasons why a lack / extreme amount of intake for either Potassium & Sodium is unhealthy. Purpose The recommended maximum intake of sodium is 2,300 mg daily, or the equivalent of 1 tsp. of table salt. People with increased risk factors for high blood pressure and heart disease are advised to limit sodium to 1,500 mg daily. In fact, the American Heart Association advises adapting the 1,500 mg maximum across the board. At the same time, the reality is that your body needs sodium to function properly, and the right balance between fluid and sodium is crucial to good health. How much Sodium? How Is Sodium Good? Potassium is the third most abundant mineral found in the human body. Along with sodium, chloride and magnesium, potassium serves as one of the body's critical electrolytes. Potassium itself also serves to control blood pressure and helps the body convert sugars into energy. As such, maintaining adequate levels of potassium is essential to sustaining a number of vital bodily functions and ensuring continued good health. Research: Potassium How Much Potassium? How Is Potassium Good? Use of Potassium in Modern Tech Gatorade contains about 450 mg of sodium per liter, or about 110 mg per cup. When you sweat during exercise, you lose sodium, about 900 to 1400 mg of sodium per liter of sweat. This can be problematic, as sodium helps maintain adequate blood pressure and volume. Although health experts often talk about the dangers of high sodium intake, low sodium levels, also known as hyponatremia, can be just as dangerous. Drinking one liter of Gatorade will replace the sodium lost in approximately half of a liter of sweat. Use of Sodium in Modern Tech Why everyone should intake Sodium and Potassium moderately. You probably want to eat right and have a complete and balanced diet, but did you know you actually need Sodium and Potassium to stay healthy? According to the Mayo Clinic, Sodium and Potassium is essential in small amounts. Like many Americans, you may need to cut down on the amount of added salt, but first, know the complete facts to know why it’s good in moderation. Sweating during physical activity or heat can cause severe problems due to dehydration and electrolyte loss. Electrolytes, the salts your body needs for proper functioning, include sodium, chloride and potassium. Without the proper balance of electrolytes and fluids, you can experience muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, coma and even death. Sodium helps replace fluid and electrolyte loss. The sodium not only helps maintain proper blood volume, but it also acts as a preservative. Sodium maintains fluid equilibrium. Salt is an electrolyte that regulates several physical processes within the human body. Salt takes an important role in regulating the water content and balance in your body. During exercise, your body loses water and electrolytes through sweat. In order for body fluids to remain at a healthy level, they must be replaced. Potassium is an essential nutrient used to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. A deficiency in potassium causes fatigue, irritability, and hypertension (increased blood pressure). Unless you are on dialysis, or have a special condition, overdose of potassium from natural sources is nearly impossible; however, it is possible to consume too much potassium via potassium salts which can lead to nausea, vomiting, and even cardiac arrest. Potassium from natural food sources, like the ones listed below, are considered safe and healthy. The current percent daily value for potassium is a whopping 3.5 grams Potassium carbonate, K2CO3, (pearl ash, salts of tartar) is used to manufacture soft soaps and glass, for washing wool, and to produce other potassium compounds.

Potassium chloride, KCl, as pills are a source of potassium and a substitute for salt, NaCl, for people on a salt-restricted diet

Potassium chlorate, KClO3 is used in matches, fireworks, and explosives, and as a disinfectant and bleaching agent.

Potassium bromide, KBr, is used by veterinarians as an anticonvulsant medicine for dogs

Potassium iodide, KI, is used in radiation therapy to block effects on the thyroid gland.

Potassium cyanide, KCN, is used in electroplating and photography. It is extremely toxic. Things you'll learn:
Exactly how much Sodium & Potassium Affect our lives
Why Sodium & Potassium is good in moderation
How much Sodium & Potassium intake needed daily Nerve impulse transmission is assisted by sodium. The sodium ion helps transmit the electrical signals in the nervous system. In rare cases where the autonomic nervous system malfunctions and dysautonomia is the result, salt is actually a treatment for disease management.

Muscles contract and relax with help from sodium. Too little salt in your diet can lead to a harmful electrolyte imbalance. Cramps, dizziness and other neurological problems can result from the imbalance of salt and water in the body, putting you at risk for water intoxication or hyponatrem. Potassium is important in helping maintain the body's fluid balance along with another important electrolyte --- sodium. When we sweat, our bodies lose potassium, so it is important to replenish its levels following exercise or extreme physical exertion. The daily recommended allowance for potassium is approximately 3.5 g. Low levels of potassium, a condition known as hypokalemia, can lead to symptoms such as weakness or fatigue, while more pronounced deficiencies can eventually have a negative impact on the heart. Hypothesis: Our hypothesis is if one does not
intake a moderate amount of either Sodium or Potassium, unhealthy symptoms such as cardiac arrest, hyponatremia, fatigue, irritability, and hypertension could occur. Experiment: Studies show that chimpanzees are similar to the heterogeneous human, aka, us. Thus, in our experiment two parallel experiments were performed. One had modified sodium intake within a cohort, with the chimps serving as their own controls. In another experiment, parallel groups were assigned either to maintain a higher sodium intake or to reduce sodium intake by half. It is very important to note that the remainder of the animals’ diet remained the same; it indeed was replete with fruits and vegetables. To Salt or Not to Salt Nutritional Program: Introduce additional flavor to your foods with herbs and spices like garlic, oregano, basil, pepper, thyme and sesame. These all add flavor without the extra sodium. If a recipe calls for salt, cut the amount called for in half and taste it before adding more.

Make healthy choices at the grocery store. Processed foods (anything in a box or bag) tend to be high in sodium because it helps preserve foods longer and increase flavor. Always read labels for the foods you buy, including the sodium content on the nutrition facts label and the ingredients list. Potassium High Foods: White Beans, Spinach, Baked Potatoes, Salmon, and Bananas.

Fast foods are high in more things than just fat. Many of these meals, sandwiches and fries contain more than your daily recommended intake of sodium in just one serving. When consulting restaurant websites to make healthy choices, pay attention to sodium levels as well. By keeping your portions in check (order a junior burger or small French fry instead of the big burgers and super fries) will help control your sodium (and caloric) intake. Conclusion Each person is different, but Sodium & Potassium is good for the body in moderation. Remember that your body needs both Potassium & Sodium for several essential functions like maintaining fluid balance, heart health, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction, and for proper function of all cells, tissues, and organs. In addition to all these functions potassium helps your body to utilize the protein you eat to build muscle, bones, and other cells. Don't forget that everything is good in moderation. Moderation is the key word of this project.
The End.
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