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Transcript of Introduction
perfume, clothing and accessories
in the interaction between persons
Rob - Oculesics & Kinesics
Sofie - Haptics & Vocalics
Dasun - Proxemics & Artifacts
Ryan - Chronemics & Conclusion
Fromkin, V. and Rodman, J. 1983, An Introduction to Language, CBS College Publishing, New York, NY
Gabbott, M. and Hogg, G. 2000, "An empirical investigation of the impact of non-verbal communication on service evaluation", European Journal of Marketing, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 384-398
Guerrero, L.K., Devito J.A.,& Hecht M.L. (1999). The Nonverbal Communication Reader: Classic and contemporary readings (2nd ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
Gudbjörg, L.R. & Thamar, M.H. 2013, ‘Balancing Work-family Life in Academia: The Power of Time’, Gender, Work and Organization, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 283-296
Lollies / sweets
1. Increases the listener’s level of attention
2. Visual tracking signal for the verbal flow
3. Carries additional information
4. Stresses important verbal segments
5. Creates a richer bimodal sensory image
6. Better stimulates the memory processes
Grazing of the eyes
Varying degrees of appropriateness
Meaning depends on culture
WHAT ARE ARTIFACTS?
Visual cues during the communication process:
arm and shoulder movements
shrugs, foot tapping, clicking pens etc
Rogers W. T. (1978). The Contribution of Kinesic Illustrators Towards the Comprehension of Verbal Behaviour Within Utterances. Human Communications Research, 5(1), 54-62.
Gabbott M, Hogg G, (2000) "An empirical investigation of the impact of non-verbal communication on service evaluation", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34 Iss: 3/4, pp.384 - 398
DeFleur, M. H., Kearney, P., Plax, T. G., & DeFleur, M. L. (Eds). (2005). Fundamentals of human communication. (3rd ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Kalman, YM, Scissors, LE, Gill, AJ, Gergle, D, 2013, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 3, pp 1260-1269
America - confident, trustworthy, polite
Europe - earned respect.... however for too long becomes uncomfortable
Asia/Africa - perceived as a challenge or affront to authority
Middle East - laws dictating women can not make eye contact with men
Communication that transcends the bare elements of the written or spoken word.
It has been suggested that up to 90% of the communication process takes place non-verbally
Gabbott, M. and Hogg, G. (2000)
Fromkin, V. and Rodman, J. (1983)
One thing at a time
Committed to the job
Adhere rigorously to plans
Follow rules of privacy and consideration
Many things at once
Consider an objective to be achieved if possible
Committed to people and relationships
Change plans often and easily
More concerned with close relations than privacy
Base promptness on relationship
“The sensibility of the individual to the world adjacent to his body by the use of his body”
The acceptance of physical culture depends on the cultural norms within a society.
Greek and Italians are three times more likely to touch than French or Dutch people
“It is better for you to be stabbed in the head with an iron needle than to touch the hand of a woman who is not permissible to you”
Estes, S. (2013). Shaking Hands With Women. Available: http://www.justaskislam.com/69/. Last accessed 16th Sep 2013.
Gibson, J.J. (1966) The senses considered as perceptual systems. Oxford, England: Houghton Mifflin. pp.
Remland & Jones. (1995). Interpersonal Distance, Body Orientation, and Touch: Effects of Culture, Gender, and Age. The Social Psychology Journal. 135 (3), p281-97.
Scherer, K. (2003). Vocal communication of emotion: A review of research paradigms. Speech Communication. 4 (2), p227-256.
Study of a two person social dilemma online social game with simple chronemic variables
Showed differences in participants'
Vocalics is the way we use our voice to convey meaning and emotion, through pitch, tone, volume, expression and pace (Scherer, 2003).
GENERAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PARALANGUAGE AND EMOTIONS
Our emotional state of mind and paralanguage are strongly linked (Scherer, 1987).
Anger often portrayed with a raised voice.
Excitement has a fast pace with elated tone.
(Kalman et. al 2013)
(Gudbjörg & Thamar 2013)
Another study of academic employees in Iceland showed that gender plays a role in household family power...
Women get stuck with the domestic work
Do not have as flexible hours
Reproduces traditional power relations in the home
WHAT WE WEAR AND HOW IT DEFINES US...
DOES YOUR STYLE SUIT YOUR SITUATION?
(Guerrero, Devito & Hecht 1999)
High clothing awareness describes an individual of an upper social class
o Higher level of Education
o Earning a greater income
o Greater verbal intelligence
(Rosenfeld & Plax, 1977)
The following video includes two scenarios where proper attire is addressed
The proffesionally dressed person conveyed a methodological and smart individual.
Outlines how dressing a certain way can also influence behavioural characteristics
Confidence vs. shy/withdrawn behaviour
o What you wear or display on your persons as accessories, has neither a right or wrong answer
as this is a definition of your individual characteristics – personality
o However, there are certain times or scenarios where certain visual communication tools will guarantee better results.
What is Proxemics?
Proxemics refers to the distance
and postures of two or more persons while interacting
(Sundaram & Webster 2000)
(McLaughlin, Olson, & White 2008)
James Poon Teng, F. (1998). Nonverbal communication and business success. Management Research News, 21(4/5), 1-10.
McLaughlin, C. M. S. R. N. C. N. S. C., Olson, R. M. S. R. N. C., & White, M. J. P. R. N. (2008). Environmental Issues in Patient Care Management: Proxemics, Personal Space, and Territoriality. Rehabilitation Nursing, 33(4), 143-147, 177.
Rosenfeld, L. B., & Plax, T. G. (1977). Clothing as Communication. Journal of Communication (pre-1986), 27(2), 24.
Sundaram, D. S., & Webster, C. (2000). The role of nonverbal communication in service encounters. The Journal of Services Marketing, 14(5), 378-391.
Artifacts act as a way for us to express individualism
Subtle image choices make the difference:
Knowledge of the zones will enhance nonverbal communication
Also provides an understanding of why people react certain ways from personal space invasion
(Sundaram & Webster 2000)
(Gabbott & Hogg 2000)
HOW DOES KINESICS IMPROVE THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS?
(Remland & Jones 1995)
(Rosenfeld & Plax 1977)