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Principles in cooking vegetables:
Transcript of Principles in cooking vegetables:
2.) Peel and cut vegetable just before cooking and avoid
soaking them in water.
9.) Save the liquid that is left after cooking vegetables and use it later for gravies, soup or sauces.
10.) the best method of cooking frozen
vegetables is stated on the package. On the
other hand, canned vegetables have already
been cooked. They need only to be heated
and seasoned. To prepared dehydrated
vegetables, add water and cook according
to the directions on the package.
Some Guidelines in the selection and purchase of vegetables
The Essentials of Buying Vegetables
1.) Buy vegetables that are in season; they are
cheap and plentiful. The y are also most
nutritious and better in flavor.
> Choose fruits with characteristics appropriate
to their types.
5.) To preserve the green color of vegetable, avoid overcooking them; do not use baking soda in cooking and uncovered the pan for the first 2 or 3 minutes.
6.) Use the same water in which dried legumes
are soaked, by simmering them instead of boiling.
5.) Get root crops that are free from dark spots and dirt. They must be firm, not soft.
7) Consider the cost in relation to the edible portion and the amount of waste for each type.
Guidelines in Purchasing
6.) Buy quality vegetables that will
best suit your particular purpose.
1.) Cook fresh green vegetable uncovered for the first few minutes and cook until just tender and still slightly crispy.
3.) Never cook vegetable in iron container. Enamel ware is suitable and preferable.
4.) use the smallest amount of water possible in boiling leafy vegetables. If vegetables are to be cooked with meat, add the vegetable to allow just enough time before meat gets tender.
7.) Starchy vegetables should be drained off after
boiling. They should be cooked long enough to
8.) Properly cooked vegetables are crispy rather than mushy with the flavor and color as
natural as possible.
a.) favorable conditions for their growth;
b.) the season of their harvest;
c.) the variety of the vegetables
d.) degree of maturity;
e.) size and uniformity of shape;
f.) presence of defects
2.) Select the vegetables that are free from surface bruises or blemishes due to decay.
3.) Choose leafy vegetables that are fresh, young, and free from decay. Avoid the wilted ones.
4.) pick out dry seeds or legumes that are not powdery and are free from holes. Legumes are susceptible to weevil attacks especially when they had been stored improperly for sometime.
8.) Buy by weight, if possible or by the count if necessary.
9.) Consider the prices of similar vegetables from at least two sources before buying.
10.) Consider equality above all other considerations.
> Buy fruits in season
> Handle fruits with caution to
prevent over handling.
> Know how the fruits is to be used before buying it to prevent spoilage.
> Avoid buying fruits in excess
Classification of Fruits
- fruits from a single ovary which remain
succulent instead of turning dry at maturity.
- develop when the ovary opens at maturity
and discharge the seeds.
- develop from a flower with carpel distributed
loosely or closely over a common receptacle.
Multiple or Collective Fruits
- formed from many flowers that have
Principles in cooking fruits;
1.) some under ripe fruits of firm texture that
contain carbohydrate in the form of starch,
require cooking to soften the cellulose structure
and cook the starch. Fruit is cooked to provide
variety in eating and to can it for future use.
2.) Whenever possible, cook fresh fruits with the skin on for better color, flavor and nutritive value.
3.) Cut the fruit before it is cooked. Cut in into uniform pieces so that all pieces will be tender at the same time.
4. Cook fruits in a small amount of water as possible only until tender to prevent loss of vitamins and minerals.
5.) the amount of sugar to be added depends on the sweetness of the fruit. Too much sugar destroys the delicate flavor of the fruit.
6.) When it is desirable to retain the shape and firm texture of fruit, it is cooked in sugar syrup or with sugar.
7.) Red fruits, such as strawberries, may lose color when heated rapidly, so slow heating is preferable.
8.) Short cooking time will ensure greater vitamin and flavor retention.
9.) Cooked fruit is most palatable when served immediately.
10.) Fruits with heavy skin, such as apples are good to bake because the peel serves as a protective covering and holds in the steam necessary to soften the cellulose and decrease the loss of volatile flavors.
Composition of Fruit Flavors
located in the cell sap of fruits contribute to its tart flavor. Acidity usually decreases as fruits ripen. Citric acid found in citrus fruits, and malic acid in apples and strawberries are examples of organic acids in fruits.
Pectin is a general term used for carbohydrates-like substances found in fruits. It acts as a cementing substance and is partially responsible for the fruits firmness and structure. it is used commercially to contribute to the gelling of fruit preserves. Pectin is very important in the ripening of fruits and the gelling of fruits preserves.
Phenolic Compounds or Tannins
Phenolic compounds are responsible for the browning and bruising that often occur in ripening fruits. Tannins are commonly found in unripe fruits, which give them a bitter taste and astringent feeling in the mouth.