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Béchir Essa

on 8 December 2014

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Transcript of Biotechnology

- a shift from reactive to preventative medicine
“Science has long been connected to innovation and to business.” – Gary P. Pisano
Organisational Challenges
The Challenges of Biotechnology
« The myth of the biotech revolution: An assessment of technological, clinical and organisational change » - Hopkins, M., Martin, P., Nightingale, P., Kraft, A. and Mahdi, S. (2007)
Biotechnology revolutionizing health care
Neurobridge bypasses damaged areas of the nervous system so the brain can communicate directly with the muscles.

A little over a decade of work was put into the Neurobridge, with a high level of uncertainty.

Opportunity for spin-off technology to develop.
Organisational Challenges
Risk Management Problem
- The need to encourage and reward profound risk-taking over long time horizons

The Integration Problem
- The need to integrate knowledge across highly diverse disciplinary bodies

The Learning Problem
- The need for cumulative learning
- Pharmacogenomics: increase in efficiency of treatment & more personalized medicine
- Gene therapy: cure of cancer and AIDS
Conditions for sustainable development of biotechnology:

- Location of an enterprise

- Presence of research universities in the area

- Desire of venture capitalists to fund biotechnological companies

- How long would it take to get to the IPO stage ?
Thanks for your attention!
What is Biotechnology?
- Drug production: cheaper manufacturing of existing medicine
- Gene testing: injection of DNA "probe"
Biotechnology revolutionizing health care
- Diagnostics: patient's reaction to a given biopharmaceutical, e.g. Herceptin
- Biopharmaceuticals and improved vaccines
Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof,
to make or modify products or processes for a specific use
China: First antibiotic: moldy soybean curds used to treat boils
Janssen invents the microscope
discovery of cells by Hooke
Egypt: yeast for bread, fermented beer

Samar, China, and Egypt: production of cheese and fermentation of wine

History of Biotech
hybridization, discovery of DNA structure
discovery of insulin
discovery of proteins, modern genetics, DNA, and chromosomes
focus on somatic gene surgery: pumping altered genes into patients with illnesses and disorders

exploration of ties between genetic mutations and environmental triggers
500 BC
4000-2000 BC
8000 BC
500 BC
4000-2000 BC
domestication of crops and livestock
8000 BC
I. Background on Biotech History

II. Advantages of Biotech

III. Challenges and Disadvantages

IV. Organizational Challenges & How the Industry Works

V. Legal Protection

VI. Example of Biotech in Medicine

VII. Conclusion/Future Predictions of the Biotech Industry
The Learning Problem
Risk Management Problem
Manchester University Innovation Company

C4XD Discovery
Bio Tech Revolution
The Future Challenges Of Biotechnology:
What do you think?

Biotechnology patents & Issues
What is a patent?

- A government license that gives the holder exclusive rights to a process or product for a designated period of time. Prevents replication by competition.

What can be patented?

- Must be novel & provide inventive step to solve a specific problem. (Scotchmer.s, Green.j 1990)
- Risk of application rejection.
- A patent is only valid within the sovereignty it is granted.
- Patent backlogs and application processing delays
- Poor patent quality, such as overly broad or ill-defined intellectual property (IP)

Not all biotech products can be patented.

- Ethical issues regarding human gene isolation and alteration.
- ‘genes are a product of nature and therefore not patentable’ (Supreme Court 2012 )
- Myriad appeal. The discovery BRCA1 breast cancer gene. (techdirt.com)
- Trade off: Making lifesaving biomedicine available to those who can’t afford it while continuing to incentivize innovation

Designer Babies
"Genes are a product of Nature and are not patentable subject mater"
- US Supreme Court (2014)
Full transcript