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KEY PAPERS PRESENTATION

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Catherine Kambouris

on 20 April 2015

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Transcript of KEY PAPERS PRESENTATION

The Eyes and the Skin: Architecture and the Senses
CATHERINE KAMBOURIS
KEY PAPERS PRESENTATION - 8900
1st Key Paper
2nd Key Paper
3rd Key Paper
4th Key Paper
How do you experience the world?
Parahippocampal Cortex is involved in material processing via echoes in blind Echolocation experts
Surface Effects: Borromini, Semper, Loos
Q + A: Clifford, Mcgee, Pigram
By Juhani Pallasmaa
Classical Greek Literature epitomised clear vision and visibility as the symbolic precondition of truth and knowledge
ARISTOTLE
384-322 BBC
Sight
is the most
noble of the senses
Vision
is one of humanities greatest gifts
PLATO
428-347 BBC
How much of the world can we experience through vision alone?
Ocularcentric Paradigm:
The privileging of vision over the other senses
THOMAS AQUINAS
1224 - 1254
Sight
can be linked to
cognition
and other
sensory
realms
Cognition
and the
senses
foregrounds the understanding of a
metaphysical reality
in architecture
"To what degree can the
multi-sensory
thresholds in architecture be articulated through a collaborative interaction of the
material
and
digital
realms?"
Epistemology:
CONSTRUCTIONISM
Deals with the nature, sources and limits of knowledge that is affiliated with a
metaphysical
reality in architecture.
Generated knowledge has been predicated on modes of
interpretation

Architecture
is our primary instrument in relating us with space and time, and giving these dimensions a
human measure
[…] As a consequence of this interdependence of space and time, the dialectics of external and internal space, physical and spiritual, material and mental,
unconscious and conscious
priorities concerning the
senses
as well as other relative roles and interactions, have an essential impact on the nature of the arts in architecture.”
Ontology:
INTERPRETIVISM
Methodology:
PHENOMENOLOGICAL


Theoretical Perspective:
INTERPRETIVISM
Pallasmaa argues that there has been a
suppression
of the other
sensory realms
, resulting in an overall impoverishment of haptic realisations in expressive
spatial conditions
in
contemporary architecture
.
Practice-based, reflective practice
Analysis of
Phenomenological
Qualitative Data
Expands on ideas and concepts of
external logic
and
authority
Articulates information established by other professionals through
heuristic inquiry
to establish the
truth-value
of claims
Phenomenology
and
hermeneutics
All practice is research
IMPLICATIONS!
Provides
deeper understanding
into the pedagogical discourse in architecture which was presumed to be solely articulated through spatial geometry.
Links experiences of the
sensory realms
with
spatial conditions
.
ACTIVITY 1...
PHYSICAL - SENSORY - COGNITIVE/ EMOTIONAL
Multi-sensory dimensions:
Strengthen our
sense of reality
and self by integrating our perceptions of the world with ourselves.
Metaphysical encounters
in
architecture
are evoked by the analysis of the qualities of substance, space and scale,
experienced
through: the eyes, ears, nose, skin,
tongue
, skeleton and muscle
Juhani Pallasmaa:
Echolocation:
Determines the placement of objects from the echoing reflections of self-emitted acoustics.
PHC
Frontal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Cerebellum
Spinal Cord
Parahippocampal Cortex:
Deals with
cognitive
processes, including
visuospatial
processing responses.
Epistemology:
OBJECTIVISM
Quantitative
data used to
validate results
of participants' brain activity that was reflected in fMRI scans to prove hypothesis.
Ontology:
POST-POSITIVIST
Echolocation
can be an alternative to vision, as it can
verify
the experience of one’s
environment
around them from the
echoes
of self-emitted clicks.
Methodology:
EXPERIMENTAL


3 Focus Groups:
3 blind Echolocators, 3 blind non-Echolocators, 3 visually-abled participants =

9 people altogether
.
Binaural recordings were made in the ears of participants while they produced clicks.
fMRI scans
played back recordings to participants.
All participants
able to identify
materials, as well as their presence in an empty room.
Theoretical Perspective:
POST-POSITIVIST
Blind Echolocators can
use sound to navigate
themselves through spaces, and also experience the quality of
spatial conditions
through multiple
sensory
and
cognitive
modes.
Activity 2...
Echoes:
Contain information about the size, shape, location, and material properties of objects in space.
Criticism of Methodology:
The focus groups only consisted of 3 people each!
More participants
should have been used to collect more results...
How does this relate to architecture?
The
PHC
draws a scientific association between the
sensory and cognitive
domains of how we
experience objects/ materiality
in spatial conditions.
Echolocation:
one example of how the body can be portrayed as the
“locus of perception”
and conscious reflection.
Repercussions:
create more knowledge in this field, adding value to the idea of
multi-sensory experiences
existing in architecture.
By Milne et al.
By Andrew Benjamin
Epistemology:
CONSTRUCTIONISM
Benjamin takes on
subjective objectivity
of co-constructed realities that are integral in architecture.
Promotes an eclectic perspective of the underlying theory in architecture;
of how it is conceived by an individual from the effect of the intrinsic properties of material surfaces.
Draws on the works of
authoritative
figures and uses
logic
to
enhance truth-value
of argument.
Ontology:
INTERPRETIVISM
Benjamin defines 3 elements that guide the relationship between theory and surface:
Defining architectural theory;
Recognising that images in architecture form part of a focus in this theory;
Understanding there is a relationship between history and theory.
Methodology:
PHENOMENOLOGICAL


Practice-led
, reflective process.
Uses
Phenomenological
research to inform claims.
Integrates
critical analysis
of
case studies
of iconic artefacts.

Theme identification
used in critical analysis of case studies.
This analysis determines a theoretical position if the surface in architecture,
both as an existing reality and as a theoretical concept.
Theoretical Perspective:
INTERPRETIVISM
Basis of claims derived from
Phenomenological
research to define how we experience architecture.
Hermeneutics
to analyse case studies.
Implications:

Idea of a productive sense of surface can
further advocate
a range of
research projects
which are concerned with the nature of the relationship between the surface and their effects in architecture.
Realisation that can
alter
the way in which
architecture
is designed in the
future...
Reflective
research practice, were qualitative data is derived from
authoritative
leaders in the field.
Similar research practice used by Pallasmaa
Further Implications:
Pervasive towards understanding how to
design
more
holistic architecture
that embodies the spatial experiences from the combination of the
physical, cognitive and sensorial
domains within reality and the metaphysical world.
Digital technologies
can enhance the
metaphysical
embodiment of
spatial conditions
by re-engineering the scope of how we experience surface and material, and is the
future
of how we
design
and build in
architecture.
Epistemology:
CONSTRUCTIONISM
Abstract summarises the works of the Clifford, Mcgee and Pigram as the
"epitome of the architectural discipline,"
saying that they have
established a paradigm of practice
that has been grounded by making, testing and experimentation.
This conclusion is drawn from Patel's analysis of the
qualitative
data generated from the interview.
To
frame answers
from interview in abstract.
Ontology:
POST-POSITIVISM
Patel's claim in the abstract is ambiguous and denotive of an infinitely complex world of which the ideas of digital technologies can be variably explored on numerous levels.
Methodology:
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS


Patel generates connections between discourses analysed and the social space of practice-based, research projects.
Qualitative interview
reflects ideologies of participants.
Integrates
critical analysis
of
case studies
of iconic artefacts.
Sociological interpretation
centered on
informative
dimension of discourse, in which participants have personal
knowledge
about the
social reality
of which they are being questioned on.
By Sneha Patel
Theoretical Perspective:
CRITICAL THEORY
Patel's questions
reflect
upon the
culture
of the participants' practice.
Questions based on intentions of further
broadening
the
scope
of the
digital culture
in architecture.
Implications:

Signify
radical developments
in digital culture for the conception, manufacturing and construction processes.
Questions encourage participants to
share
their own
knowledgeable insights
of the social, historical and ideological forces prevailing in their work.
All practice becomes research in this field, predicated on modes of interpretation of knowledge drawn from authority.
Industry professionals are already encouraging the digital progression in architecture and construction.
Consequence:
Reformat the way individuals experience the physical world
Question:
To what degree can the multi-sensory thresholds in architecture be articulated through a collaborative interaction of the material and digital realms?
An
infinite degree
of articulation in the multi-sensory dimension of architecture is possible through a synergic correlation between the material and digital realms.
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