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POLICY ANALYSIS (Report)

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by

Exequiel Salcedo

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of POLICY ANALYSIS (Report)

REFORMING THE
An Analysis of the PBIS Policy as a Solution to the Problem of Teacher Shortage in Philippine Public Education
REFORM AGENDA:
ERNI | REGALADO | SALCEDO | SILVANO
BACKGROUND
JUNE-JULY 2013
46,000
61, 510
55, 848
vacancies
public schools
hired
5, 662
As of
remaining
vacancies
5, 662
is not a small number.
It can staff almost
515
public schools,
especially in
rural areas.
BACKGROUND
"There is
no equitable deployment
of new teachers."
-The Official Gazette
“Some provinces are having a hard time hiring because there are
not enough (LET) passers
in the area.”
-Usec. Albert Muyot (Legal Affairs, DepEd)
with Early Childhood Education Degree for Kindergarten.
Shortage of teachers

BACKGROUND
THE PROBLEM:
Shortage of public school teachers
-qualified
SHORTAGE OF QUALITY PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LEVELS
Insufficient budget appropriation
Current budget still falls short of the 6% of the GDP standard by the United Nations.
CAUSES
Lack of qualified interested applicants
Performance-based Bonus is insufficient to motivate currently employed and aspiring
public school teachers.
Slow recruitment and application process
Current process in BESRA requires applicants to undergo 5 major phases, 3 committees and evaluation based on 8 criteria, taking about a year to get hired.
SHORTAGE OF QUALITY PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LEVELS
Multi-disciplinary instruction
Teachers are forced to instruct students beyond their areas of knowledge and expertise.
EFFECTS
High pupil-teacher ratio
As of 2008, PTR in PH was at 35:1, which was lower than our neighbor's at 28:1.
As of 2009, PTR was at
a slightly lower 31:1.
Multi-level instruction
Teachers take more load than standard, handling students as broadly as from Grade 1 to Grade 4.
BJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
To analyze and evaluate the feasibility of three possible alternative policies addressing the three causes of the shortage of quality public school teachers in basic education
TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE, SUSTAINABLE AND QUALITY SUPPLY OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS
Increase budget for education
MEANS
Streamline the recruitment and application process
Provide better, non-monetary incentives for public school teachers
METHODOLOGY
Identify
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
as well as strategies for current and
alternative policies
Enumerate and evaluate
Criteria for Decision Making
CURRENT POLICY
Performance-Based Bonus
(PBB) for the
Department of Education
Employees and Officials
=
DepEd Order No. 12, s. 2013,
pursuant to E.O. No. 80, s. 2012
entitled Directing the Adoption of a
Peformance-Based Incentive System
(PBIS) for Government Employees
CURRENT POLICY
STRENGTHS
WEAKNESSES
OPPORTUNITIES
THREATS
1. In line with international trend of performance-based systems of compensation for public employees

2. Strong support from political leaders for bureaucratic reform

3. Popular demand for better quality of services from the public sector
- Institutionalize and promote a culture of excellence in public service

- Remain flexible and adapt performance-based system practices from other countries

- Use the zeal of political leaders to strengthen innovative practices within the workings of the program
1. Negative political influence which affects objective performance evaluation

2. Teachers’ unions, by default, think that this is inequitable

3. Source of political patronage and corruption
- Deliver bonuses efficiently, fairly and consistently

- Closely monitor the mobilization of manpower and resources

- Practice and strongly uphold professionalism in the system
- Provide mechanisms for close monitoring of the processes needed for the granting of bonuses

- Use support from political leaders as leverage for financial support

- Strengthen trust in the program through the help of civil society organizations
- Establish a system of transparency and accountability within the program

- Monitor the financial outflows and inflows of the program

- Build up trust in the system
STRENGTHS
WEAKNESSES
OPPORTUNITIES
THREATS
1. UN standards require at least 6% of GDP allotted for education

2. Mandatory budget increase due to K-12 system implementation

3. Presence of CSOs and other groups lobbying for increased budget for education
- Convince government to comply with international educational standards for better image for foreign investors

- Develop infrastructures and resources in education sector

- Rally popular/political support for budget increase and continued financial support
1. More tedious, thorough and meticulous budget approval scheme in Congress in light of the PDAF/DAP issues

2. Inefficient revenue collection by the BIR

3. Competition with other agencies and government expenditures
- Articulate and specify necessary items and resources to be allocated for

- Tap into other sources of funds other than internal revenues (e.g. PAGCOR)

- Ask education reform advocates in government to support and lobby for increased budget for education
- Ensure that budget allotted will be spent for education items or resources

- Engage/partner with civil society to monitor the government’s budget allocation and implementation by providing feedback and evaluations
- Consult with education management experts in crafting line item budget proposal

- Empower DepEd to sustain increased financial support for education sector
OPTION A:
Increase budget
for education
STRENGTHS
WEAKNESSES
OPPORTUNITIES
THREATS
1. Government-wide rationalization program currently at work

2. Increased demand for public school teachers due to K-12 system
- Eliminate redundant processes and bureaucratic requirements to increase efficiency

- Train enough number of teachers to be deployed in higher (new) levels of basic public education
1. Higher salaries for teachers in other countries

2. Political patronage in local government units
- Make recruitment process less tedious and more attractive for applicants by decentralizing the application and placement processes by referring LET passers directly to DepEd regional and district offices for interviews and placement

- Ensure bureaucratic independence from local politics
- Utilize institutional authority to eliminate possible resistance from lower levels

- Address concerns regarding necessary skills and/or subject specialization for better quality of instruction
- Provide additional non-monetary benefits for public school employees

- Engage civil society in monitoring and evaluations functions
OPTION B:
Streamline recruitment and application process for public school teachers
STRENGTHS
WEAKNESSES
OPPORTUNITIES
THREATS
1. Development of the PBIS

2. Presence of an ACT Teachers Partylist Representative in the 16th Philippine Congress

3. Presence of NGOs dedicated to improving public education

4. Presence of the Special Education Fund
- Develop an incentive system similar to the PBIS, but specific to public school employees (i.e. teachers, other members of the faculty, and principals taken as a group)

- Promote current incentives and other benefits of public school teaching (e.g. healthcare, services and recognitions)

- Partner with NGOs (with regards to programs that will improve the image of public school teachers)
1. New K+12 System

2. Other pressing problems with regard to public education (e.g. lack of
classrooms, quality of education)

3. Corruption
- Urge LGUs to develop and institutionalize non-monetary incentive and reward systems that are appropriate for their localities such as the giving loyalty awards and other recognitions

- Let DepEd engage with the LGUs via regional/district offices in developing designs for other kinds of grants and/or subsidies
- Closely monitor implementation of reward system/s

- Explore the possibility of providing separate incentives for to school board members

- Explore the possibility of a PPP; LGUs at the helm of designing non-monetary benefits and incentives
- Make sure that programs and systems set to solve other problems with regard to public education are effective and sustainable

- Monitor the mobilization of and coordination between DBM and DepEd
OPTION C:
Provide better, non-monetary
incentives for public school teachers
CRITERIA
FOR

DECISION-MAKING
General Acceptability
Administrative Feasibility
Executive Priority
CRITERIA
FOR

DECISION-MAKING
Financial Sustainability
Legal Feasibility
Refers to the acceptability of the policy option on the part of all concerned

Refers to the implementability, resources available and capability of people in carrying out the policy option

Refers to the level of priority set forth by the President in comparative to other priorities and concerns

Refers to the sustainability of financial resources available to implement the policy option


Refers to the feasibility of the policy to be implemented in consideration of all legal concerns and issues affecting the policy
FINDINGS
Increase budget
for education
Streamline the
recruitment
and application
process
Provide better,
non-monetary
incentives for
public school teachers
A
B
C
DECISION MATRIX
General
Acceptability
Administrative
Feasibility
Executive
Priority
Financial
Sustainability
Legal
Feasibility
- LOW
- MEDIUM
- HIGH
Increase budget
for education
Streamline the
recruitment
and application
process
Provide better,
non-monetary
incentives for
public school teachers
A
B
C
DECISION MATRIX
PERFECT SCORE: 15
TOTAL:
7
11
13
CONCLUSION:
is the best option
for now
.
POLICY OPTION C
Providing better, non-monetary incentives to public school teachers
How so?
There is already an existing policy (PBIS/PBB) that is at work. Merit and performance evaluation system can still be adopted but the rewards will
be changed.
How so?
No particularly huge financial or capital investment required. Additional funds may be necessary but the point really is to translate monetary rewards into non-monetary benefits. As such, LGUs will no longer be constrained to rewarding their teachers.
How so?
This will have immediate effects on both applicants and currently employed public school teachers, thereby potentially increasing and sustaining their supply.
The two remaining
means still have to be used
in order to fully address the problem
of shortage of public school teachers.
BUT
OPTION A
OPTION B
+
RECOMMENDATIONS
Explore further how LGUs can exactly provide which kind of non-monetary incentives.
Review existing non-monetary incentives system in other countries.
Gather more data about the capabilities of LGUs to evaluate their teachers and provide better but economical incentives.
SALCEDO VILLAGE
MARAMING SALAMAT PO!
PM 213
Dr. Corinthia Naz
-equitably distributed

-sustainable/well-incentivized
.
TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE, SUSTAINABLE AND QUALITY SUPPLY OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS
Higher student achievement
ENDS
Lower pupil-teacher ratio
Higher number of graduates
(STRATEGIES)
(STRATEGIES)
(STRATEGIES)
(STRATEGIES)
Full transcript