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Transcript of 1400
Imperialism and Colonialism in Europe
Vasco da Gama Becomes the First European to Complete A Sea Voyage to India, 1498
Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer and navigator who traveled to the East during Europe’s period of intense exploration between 1420 and 1580 CE. He was the first European to reach India by sea, linking Europe and Asia for the first time by ocean route
1460: Vasco da Gama is born to a noble family in Sines, Portugal. He is the third son of Estêvão da Gama, who commanded the fortress at Sines.
1497: King Manuel of Portugal appoints da Gama to lead an expedition to find a sea route to India.
May 20, 1498: Da Gama reaches the port of Calicut, on the southwestern coast of India. Da Gama becomes the first European to complete a sea voyage to India. Amazed by the spices, silks and gems they fill their ships with it.
August, 1498: Da Gama departs India, they set sail for Europe, carrying spices and the news of their discovery. Da Gama and his crew return to Portugal by July 10, 1499.
1499: Hailed as a hero for his discovery
1524 : Da Gama dies in Cochin, India
Christopher Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue in 1492
Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy in 1451. He later lived in Lisbon where he worked as a trader
Growing up he learned how to make maps and navigate ships
Originally, he was denied funding for his journey by King John
He convinced Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to pay
He completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean
Columbus's wanted to reach the East Indies by sailing west
He planned to enter the spice trade with Asia through a new route. As he knew that there were great riches to be had in China and East Asia. However, traveling overland (by the Silk Road) was dangerous and sailing around Africa seemed too long. Columbus thought he could sail straight to China by crossing the Atlantic Ocean
His first voyage was in 1492, and instead of arriving at Japan he reached the New World, landing on an island in the Bahamas
Upon exploring the Bahamas (which he thought was India) He came across many new foods which he brought back to Spain
His journey to Bahamas sparked the Colombian Exchange
Francisco Pizarro Discovers
Lima, Peru 1535
In 1513, he joined Vasco Nunez de Balboa on his expeditions. He was even a member of Balboa's famous expedition
He was ordered by the governor to abandon his expedition to prevent loss of lives. But he did not believe in failure and he drew a line in the dust, inviting those who desired wealth and fame to cross the line and follow him
He went on three voyages in total, the first voyage was not a success, as he never discovered land and many crewmen died
He planned his second voyage after hearing stories of the riches of the New World and wanted to travel there and find his own fortune. He set sail for the New World and lived on the island of Hispaniola for several years as a colonist
On his third trip in 1532, Pizarro landed on the coast of South America. Where he established the first Spanish settlement in Peru
In 1535 he established the city of Lima as the new capital of Peru. He would rule as governor for the next ten years.
In 1538 Pizarro had a dispute with his long time expedition partner and fellow conquistador Diego Almagro. Pizarro then ordered to have Almagro killed.
June 26, 1541 some of Almagro's supporters led by Almagro's son, stormed into Pizarro's home in Lima and assassinated him
The Start of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600s
The commerce of Africans for work in the Americas (Atlantic slave trade) became a enormous enterprise. And between 1500-1600 it up climbed to almost 1.3 millions, by the time the Atlantic slave trade ended around 1870, Europeans had imported about 9.5 million Africans to the Americas.
1502: First reported African slaves in the New World
During 1600s Brazil dominated the European sugar market. As the industry grew the need for cheap labor grew as well. During the 17th century, more than 40 percent of all Africans brought to the Americas went to brazil
1650: Nearly 300,000 Africans labored throughout Spanish America on plantations and in gold and silver mines.
1640-1680: Beginning of large-scale introduction of African slave labor in the British Caribbean for sugar production and started expanding into an enterprise.
1690-1807 England was the leading carrier of enslaved Africans. By the time slavery was abolished the English had transported almost 1.7 million Africans to their colonies in the West Indies.
In 1739 a group of slaves in South Carolina led an uprising known as the Stono Rebellion. This uprising continued into the 1800s.
By 1830, about 2 million slaves toiled in the U.S.
The Colombian Exchange Leads to the Outbreak of Diseases 1550
Colombia exchange began in 1492, when Christopher Columbus discovered the Bahamas/Central America
The Colombian Exchange is also known as the colonization of the Americas
It lead to the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals, such as tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, horses, turkeys and cocoa
Most importantly the global transfer of corn and potatoes. These foods became very popular in the East. Many families made a living off of farming corn and potatoes. Example: The plethora of potato farmers in Ireland
The vitamins found in the various foods led to people living longer and healthier lives
However, the Colombian Exchange also spread fatal diseases, which killed half of the population
The outbreak of diseases began in 1550, diseases like smallpox, measles, influenza, typhus, malaria, diphtheria, and whooping cough lead to the death of many Native Americans
The Tokugawa Shogun's Come to Power 1603
"Shogun" is a title that was granted by the Emperor to the country's top military commander
Japan was ruled mainly by a succession of shoguns, whose titles were usually passed on from father to son
The final shoguns were those of the Tokugawa clan, who came to power in 1603 and ruled until 1868
Leyasu is the founder of the Tokugawa clan. He built a new capital in Edo, the city that is now Tokyo
In 1600, Leyasu defeated his rivals at the Battle of Sekigahara. His victory earned him the loyalty of daimyo throughout Japan.
Leyasu became the sole ruler, or shogun of Edo
When he was ruler, his taxes were heavy, which made him unpopular by the lower class
Leyasu contributed to rich Japanese culture seen today
In 1868 the fifteenth Tokugawa shogun, Yoshinobu, was forced to give up his position and return his power to the Emperor's court.
Dutch East Indian Company Establishes Their Dominance in the Spice Trade 1620
Ming Dynasty Builds a legacy 1420
They Ming Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644.
1367: Zhou Yuanzhang’s army eliminates the military forces of the Yuan Dynasty after the seven-year battle, Zhu Yuanzhang’s army ends the rule of the Yuan dynasty.
1368: Zhou declares himself the emperor of China
1368: Construction on the Great Wall of China begins
1371: Maritime trade is banned in China with the goal to end piracy.
1420: Beijing is named the capital, after construction on the Forbidden City is complete.
1449: Emperor Zhengtong is captured and held for ransom by Mongolia. But he was released four years later with no ransom paid.
1628: Li Zheng leads a peasant revolt against the Ming Dynasty to divide land equally and eliminate grain taxes.
1642, : Ming Dynasty army floods Kaifeng with water from the Yellow River, killing 600,000 residents.
1644: Li Zicheng’s rebel forces march into Beijing and Emperor CHongzhen commits suicide and the Ming Dynasty ends.
By: Olya, Maha & Stephanie
Occupation: Conquistador and Explorer
Born: Around 1474 in Trujillo, Spain
Died: June 26, 1541 in Lima, Peru
Best known for: Conquering the Inca Empire
Born: 1451 in Genoa, Italy
Died: May 20, 1506
Best known for: Discovering America
Formed an East India Company to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. The DEIC became richer and more powerful that England’s company. In the end they drove out the English and established their dominance over the region and held it until 1700.
March 1619, Set up a capita in the port city of Jakarta and changed the city name to Batavia. From which they expanded and conquered several nearby islands.
March 1620: intense rivalry between England and the VOC increased as the spice trade grew colossally profitable. In 1623, agents of the VOC tortured and executed 20 men accused of treason . Ten of the men worked for the British East India Company. After this, the that company withdrew from Indonesia. Making VOC dominant for the time being.
July 1623: The VOC wanted the Ming dynasty to open China to Dutch trade, but were rejected and defeated by the Chinese.
July 1639-July 1970: Started trading with Japan, enabling the company to buy cheap silver
March 1700: The VOC lost their power and no longer held the monopoly on the spice trade because of the Third Anglo-Dutch war and a decline in trade with Japan
Take care of the people. Strive to be virtuous. Never neglect to protect the country.” - Leyasu Tokugawa Shogun
The Death of Atahualpa, 1533
Occupation: Last Ruler of the Incan Empire in Peru
Died: June 26, 1533
Atahualpa was the last ruler of the Incan empire in Peru
He was captured and held for ransom by a small spanish force in in 1532
The Incan people throughout the empire brought gold and silver that the Spanish then melted down into bullion (gold bars) and ingots (pure metal)
The spanish executed Atahualpa despite the ransom paid by his people
The spanish offered him a more merciful death by strangulation if he agreed to convert to christianity
He converted to christianity but still died on July 26 1533
He was given a christian burial
Hernando Cortés Conquered
Occupation: Spanish Conquistador
Born: 1485, Medellín, Spain
Died: December 2, 1547
Best known for: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
The spanish had the advantage of superior weaponry to defeat the natives whose arrows were no match for the Spaniards muskets and cannons
In 1519 a Spaniard by the name of Hernando Cortes landed on the shores of Mexico
In late spring 1520 some of Cortes men killed many Aztec warriors and chiefs while they were celebrating a religious festival
In June 1520 the Aztec rebelled against the spanish intruders and drove out Cortes forces
Hernando Cortes conquered Tenochtitlan in 1521 securing the Aztec Empire for the Spanish
By the time Cortes launched his counter attack, the Aztec population had been greatly reduced by small-pox and the measles
Eventually the European disease ended up killing millions of natives in Mexico
By 1532 Cortes and Pizarro both conquered the civilizations of the Americas , fellow conquistadors defeated the other natives
Signing of the Treaty of
This treaty was made on June 7th 1494 when Spain and Portugal met at Tordesillas
It was an agreement between Spain and Portugal directed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th-century voyagers
Spain and Portugal signed a treaty and moved the line 270 leagues west, to 370 leagues west of Cape Verde
This new line (located at approximately 46° 37') gave Portugal more claim to South America yet also provided Portugal with automatic control over most of the Indian Ocean
Portuguese expeditions were to keep to the east of the line
Neither power was to occupy any territory already in the hands of a Christian ruler
The Birth of Metacom/King Philip, 1638
Metacom, also called Metacomet or King Philip was born on c. 1638
He was best known as the Wampanoag leader
1621: Metacom was the second son of Massasoit who had negotiated peace with the Pilgrims
1662: Metacom became sachem and later assumed the role of chief of a confederation of Algonquian speaking tribes
1675–76: Metacom led one of the most costly wars of resistance in New England history, known as King Philip’s War
The Indians’ resentment of the English had been building since the 1660s
June 1675: violence erupted when three Wampanoag warriors were executed by Plymouth authorities for the murder of John Sassamon, a tribal informer
However, after a year of savage fighting Metacom returned to his ancestral home at Mount Hope, where he was betrayed by an informer and killed in a final battle
August 12, 1676: Metacom was beheaded and died in Rhode Island
His head was displayed on a pole for 25 years at Plymouth