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History of the internet

By Josh.R
by

Josh Ravenscroft

on 6 June 2013

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Transcript of History of the internet

The first node is connected to the internet's military ancestor, ARPANET. With no HQ and the ability to bounce messages between surviving nodes until they reach their destination, ARPANET was intended to be America's bomb-proof communications network at the height of the Cold War. 1969 Michael Hart begins Project Gutenberg to make copyright-free
works electronically available. The first is the US declaration of independence. 1971 Bolt Beranek and Newman computer engineer Ray Tomlinson
invents email by adapting an internal messaging program and
extending it to use the ARPANET to send messages between
sites. Within a year, three quarters of ARPANET traffic is email. 1972 University College of London is one of the first
international connections to ARPANET. 1973 Queen Elizabeth II sends an email from
the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment in Malvern. 1976 Gary Thuerk sends what is widely considered
to be the first spam message, promoting DEC. 1978 Scott Fahlman kick-starts smiley-culture by
suggesting using the :-) and :-( smileys to convey emotions in emails. His message has been preserved at http://research.microsoft.com/~mbj/Smiley/Smiley.html. 1982 Joint Academic Network (JANET) built to connect
UK universities to each other over the internet. 1984 Internet newsgroups are born. Rick Adams at the Center
for Seismic Studies releases software enabling news
transmission, posting and reading using internet-standard
TCP/IP connections. His software builds on work begun in
1979 at Duke University to exchange information between
Unix machines. 1986 The first internet worm is unleashed by Robert Morris. It infects about 6000 computers. Although it causes no physical damage, it clogs up the internet and loses hundreds of thousands of dollars in computer time. 1988 Tim Berners-Lee and the team at CERN invent the World Wide Web to make information easier to publish and access on the internet. 1989 Marc Andreesen of the National Center for SuperComputer
Applications in the US launches web-browser Mosaic. It
introduces proprietary HTML tags and more sophisticated image capabilities. The browser is a massive success and businesses
start to notice the web's potential. Andreesen goes on to
develop the Netscape web browser. 1993 1994 Internet Magazine launches. It reports on London's first cybercafe
and reviews 100 websites. It's billed as the 'most extensive' list
of websites ever to appear in a magazine. A 28.8Kbps modem costs
£399 (plus VAT). Jerry and David's Guide to the World Wide
Web is renamed Yahoo! and receives
100,000 visitors. In 1995, it begins
displaying adverts. 1994 Digital Equipment Corporation's Research lab
launches search engine Alta Vista, which it
claims can store and index the HTML from
every internet page. It also introduces the
first multilingual search.. 1995 Jeff Bezos launches Amazon.com, an online bookseller
that pioneers ecommerce.
eBay is launched to enable internet users to trade with each other. 1995 The browser wars begin. Microsoft sees the
internet as a threat and integrates Internet
Explorer with Windows. Netscape and
Microsoft go head-to-head, intensively
developing and releasing upgrades to their
browsers. 1996 Macromedia Flash 1.0 launches to add
interactive animation to webpages. Early
adopters include Disney and MSN. 1996 Google arrives. It pioneers a ranking system
that uses links to assess a website's
popularity. Google's simple design is soothing
while existing search engines cram their
pages with animated adverts. 1998 Shawn Fanning launches Napster. The peer-to-peer software
enables internet users to swap MP3 music files stored on their computers and to find each other through a central directory.
Record labels are furious. By July 2001, they had effectively
stopped Napster operating. (See my history of file sharing). 1999 The dotcom bust. After several years of
venture capitalists throwing money at
proposals with 'internet' on the cover, it all
starts unravelling as many of these
businesses fail to find a market and others
realise they don't have a business plan. 2000 Shareholders of relative upstart AOL own 55% of the
new company. AOL started in 1985 and grew its
modest internet connection business into one of the
world's biggest media companies. 2001 Nearly half of us are connected: UK
telecomms regulator Oftel reports that 47%
of UK homes have internet access and 58%
have a PC. Of those online, 15% use
broadband and 92% are satisfied with their
service. 2003 As broadband becomes more popular, media companies start
selling music and video online. Napster relaunches as a paid
music download store. It's up against iTunes, Apple's download
store for its trendy iPod portable music players. 2004 Mark Zuckerberg launches Facebook at
Harvard University. Within three years, the
social networking site has 30 million members.
By 2009, Facebook boasts of over 200 million
active users (those who have logged in in
the last 30 days). 2004 Photo sharing website Flickr is born,
coinciding with the rise in digital photography.
(Kodak discontinues reloadable film cameras
in Western Europe and North America in this
year.) 2004 The internet starts to threaten television and telephone companies. Youtube launches to enable people to easily publish videos online. Within a year, Google acquires Youtube for $1.65 billion despite owning its own video site. At the time, Youtube users were uploading 65,000 new films and watching 100 million clips each day. Meanwhile, phone companies are threatened byfree internet-based phone calls. Skype enables two million
calls at any moment, and has a user base of 53 million. eBay acquires Skype for $2.6 billion (£1.4 billion), although it later fails to incorporate Skype into its core business successfully. 2005 Old media has been slow to catch up with new media.
Rupert Murdoch's News Corp responds by buying
Intermix Media, owner of Myspace.com, for $580 million
(£332.85 million) and ITV acquires FriendsReunited
for £120 million (about £8 per user). 2005 Twitter is created. In stark contrast to the
proliferation of lengthy blog posts online,
Twitter messages are limited to 140
characters. 2006 Jack Sheng becomes the first person to earn an eBay feedback
score of one million. From startup capital of $500, Sheng has built
a $40 million business selling gadgets. eBay creates the shooting
silver star to designate users with a feedback score of over a
million. 2008 Google's tenth birthday. The company that began with a
search engine now also dominates online advertising and has a
leading presence in online mapping, webmail and online document collaboration. Google's search engine indexes 1 trillion unique
URLs and there are several billion new webpages published
every day. Google encroaches on Microsoft's territory with
the launch of the Google Chrome browser. 2008 The mobile web reaches critical mass for advertising,
according to Nielsen Mobile. In the US, there are 95 million
mobile internet subscribers and 40 million active users. US
mobile penetration is 15.6%, compared to 12.9% in the UK.
Mobile internet generated $1.7 billion in revenue in the first
quarter of 2008. 2008 Actor Ashton Kutcher becomes the first person
on Twitter to have a million followers
subscribing to his 'tweets'. 2009 The BBC announces its iPlayer will go high definition. It was first launched Christmas 2007 and is used to stream programmes over the internet for up to a week after their television broadcast. Two thirds of Britons have broadband access at home , and there were 1.5 million new broadband subscribers in 2008. 2009 In February, Facebook announces it has 400
million active members. That's larger than the
population of the US and UK combined. 2010 In 2002 the majority of wireless service providers in
North America deployed their 3G networks. The
subscribers enjoyed increased efficiency in voice data
transmission rates that enabled a host of new applications
such as video, packet data, email and other functions
that had before this worked at very sluggish speeds. 2002 Internet World Stats counted over 544 million users on the Internet. This meant that there was more people on the internet than there were people in the UK and USA combined. 2002 Internet World Stats counts over 1.3 billion web surfers
worldwide as of December, 2007. That is the population
of Europe and USA combined, which really shows how
much the internet has become more attractive to users. 2007 The internet celebrates its 40th birthday.
It was 40 years ago when they first launched
ARPANET. 2009 Twitter and Facebook play a large role in the Middle East revolts. Which shows how far communications within the internet has grown. 2011 2012 Internet users scored an important victory in the battle to
defeat the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA)/Protect IP Act
(PIPA) and to maintain Internet freedom. Apple Computer is founded by Steve Jobs and
Steve Wozniak. 1976 Just like ARPANET, USENET was created for people to share
information. In the late 70's personal computing began
developing and anybody with a computer could send and
receive information using USENET. 1979 Dr John Postel introduces top level domains;
.com, .org, .gov, .edu, .mil. The most common
domain used is .com, it is used by the whole
world but most countries have their own domain (UK has .co.uk). 1984 CompuServe developers develop and release an efficient loss less
compression graphics format. This graphic format became very popular and is still widely used today. 1987 1989 MP3 is the most common adn most widely used music format
and can be easily downloaded and uploaded to the web, this is
still a favourite today. 1995 In April 1995, Apache was released.
Apache is a free open source HTTP
server software that dishes out
web pages, even Microsofts Hotmail
ran on Apache. 2001 Bill Gates introduces the Xbox, as part
of the Microsoft Corporation. The Xbox became one of the worlds favourite gaming consoles and made Microsoft a more recognisable name. 2002 In 2002 Ebay aquired PayPal, the revolutionary way in which
people and businesses can transfer money to one another,
it made buying online much safer and easier. Now almost all online shopping sites use PayPal for cusotmers to pay for their items. 2007 2010 In 2010, Apple released the iPad. The iPad is a tablet
computer, bigger than a mobile phone but smaller than a computer making it more portable, the iPad soon became very popular and revolutionised tablet computers due to its full internet access. 2012 The History of the Internet
By Josh.R 2007 In 2007 Apple released the iPhone, it was a touch screen smart phone which had internet access. Any website could be accessed through the phone anywhere across the world, people could purchase items from websites from their phone which revolutionised internet shopping. In 2012, Facebook sold 421,000,000 shares making a
gross profit of $104,000,000,000, tuning the free social networking site into a business raking in the cash! The BBC launched the iPlayer in 2007 so that viewers can watch
any shows shown on the BBC channels at any time aftwerds on demand, most channels now have a website in which they can watch programs on demand but the BBC iPlayer was the first on demand website in the UK. 2007 In 2007 Apple released the iPhone, it was a touch screen smart phone which had internet access. Any website could be accessed through the phone anywhere across the world, people could purchase items from websites from their phone which revolutionised internet shopping. Thanks For Watching
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