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The Invention and Utilization of Steam Engines from the Industrial Revolution
Transcript of The Invention and Utilization of Steam Engines from the Industrial Revolution
Born in Birmingham, England. Was eventually elected as a fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1785.
Fuel for the
Coal was the main fuel for the steam engines due to the availability once wood was depleting.
Pittsburgh's steam engines would consume more than 2 million bushels of coal per year.
Reason for Invention
Due to the dependence of raw materials for energy, mainly water power, industrialists had to move from urban to rural areas.
Flour (corn) mills were transformed for different uses for the iron industry; using steam as the main energy source. Well known mills were from Staffordshire and Worcestershire in England.
Was working in London, but moved to Manchester due to the rapid increase in industrialization.
1836- started his own foundry near Bridgewater Canal junction in the manufacturing of steel products.
Designed a steamship, ran into the hardship of forging the drive shaft; invented and created the steam hammer with patent in 1842.
With his foundry, Nasmyth manufactured over 100 steam locomotives and many kinds of small steam powered amenities.
Age 48 Nasmyth retired from the foundry and devoted himself to his hobby of astronomy.
Born in Dartmouth, raised as an ironmonger. During this time, when mines would fill with water, it was costly to rely on horse and man power. Experimented with Calley, a plumber, for 10+ years to make a better steam pump than Savery.
Newcomen's engine did not fail under high pressures of the steam. Newcomen made the high pressure steam push down the piston.
Setback: Could not patent because Savery's patent was too broad, so their partnership in the steam industry evolved.
1st recorded Newcomen engine was manufactured near Dudley Castle in Staffordshire, 1712.
Invented internal condensing jet to obtain vacuum and automatic valve gear.
From Shilstone, England. Was a military engineer, was given the opportunity to invent the first stationary steam engine to operate a pump.
Weakness of engine when steam reached high pressures of 8 to 10 or more atmospheres.
(Pursell Jr., 1)
("Thomas Savery", Web)
("Thomas Newcomen," Web)
("James Watt," Web)
Watt was critical of the Newcomen/Savery engine and was given the opportunity to research and repair a Newcomen engine at the University of Glasgow. Partnered with Matthew Boulton (a wealthy English industrialist) to improve the efficiency of the steam that was lost from the Newcomen engine.
(McKay, Hill, Buckler, Crowston, Weisner-Hanks, Perry, 660-661)
("James Nasmyth," Web)
What Steam Replaced
Steam engines allowed manufacturers to move back to urban areas.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA: Replaced flour and some textile mills for iron, steel, and glass works along with cotton, salt, brass, white lead and leather mills.
Detroit, Michigan, USA: Steam engines used in saw mills as well as iron works, glass works, and engine shops.
(McKay, Hill, Buckler, Crowston, Weisner-Hanks, Perry, 718)
(McKay, Hill, Buckler, Crowston, Weisner-Hanks, Perry, 660)
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Set Backs of Steam
Newcomen engine was not a big hit in the United States because it was noisy and very heavy; Watt engine thrived in America.
Exportation of steam engines was banned from England in 1785.
Steam automobiles were heavy, scared the horses, and damaged the roads.
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Steam In America:
Once the railways came to America, the St. Mary's River transportation was replaced with more reliable and faster steam engine power. Detroit was known for the saw mills as well as the manufacturing of steam engines.
The first automobile was built by Charles B. King and released in March of 1896.
Henry Ford's automobile was released three months later.
By 1904, Michigan was making more automobiles than any other state.
Stephenson was familiar and working hands on with a Newcomen engine at age 19.
"His genius with steam engines, however, presently won him the post of engine write (chief mechanic) at Killingworth colliery." Stephenson's Locomotion, ran at 15mph.
Over the course of 10 years, Stephenson constructed the first efficient locomotive named the Rocket that would fly at 36 mph. The eight locomotives that were used when the Liverpool-Manchester line opened were all made under Stephenson's direction.
("George Stephenson," Web.)
By 1850, trains were reaching 50mph.
(Mckay, Hill, Buckler, Crowston, Weisner-Hanks, Perry, 664)
Isambard Brunel and Thomas Brassey were successful engineers who made railroad tunnels through mountains and bridges over valleys that got a lot of attention from the public; enthused locomotive imagination in everyone.
(McKay, Hill, Buckler, Crowston, Wiesner-Hanks, Perry, 664)
Steam Science Moving Forward
With the successes of the steam engine, scientists studied the engines along with Newton's laws of mechanics and discovered thermodynamics (branch of physics that studies the relationship between heat and mechanical energy).
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("George Stephenson," Web.)
"The mystery was, how the machine in the well was first actuated and kept in motion. This (as I at length discovered, with surprise) was done by the power of boiling water."
-Isaac Bangs 1776
“George Stephenson.” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc.,2013. Web. 08 Dec. 2013.
“James Nasmyth.” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 08 Dec. 2013.
“James Watt.” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 08 Dec. 2013.
Kich, Martin. "Immigration’s Impact on the Industry." The Industrial Revolution in America: Automobiles, Mining and Petroleum,
Textiles. Ed. Kevin Hillstrom, Laurie Collier Hillstrom. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2006. ABC-CLIO eBook Collection. Web. 8 Dec 2013.
McKay, John P., Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Clare H. Crowston, Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks, and Joe Perry. A History of
Western Society. Tenth ed. Vol. 2. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2011. 656-795. Print.
Pursell Jr., Carroll W. (Early Stationary Steam Engines in America: A Study in the Migration of a Technology. Washington:
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1969. 1-13. Print.
“Thomas Newcomen.” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 05 Dec. 2013.
“Thomas Savery.” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 05 Dec. 2013.