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Evolution

Darwin, microevolution, macroevolution, evidence for evolution
by

Nicole Koller

on 7 May 2013

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Transcript of Evolution

What is
evolution? Darwin's Voyage Born: Feb. 12, 1809
Place: Shrewsbury, England
loved collecting insects & fossils
medical school; drops out
religious study to become clergy
1831 - selected to sail aboard the H.M.S. Beagle as a naturalist Darwin discovers fossilized shells 45 feet above water line
Support's Lyell's theory of a changing earth Darwin notes species on islands resemble species from mainland
many species have large variation from island to island Darwin was impressed by the unique species
theorized a second Creation just for Australia 1836: Beagle returns Darwin's Theory descent with modification

natural selection organisms living on earth today are descended from ancestral species
adaptations accumulate over time individuals more suited to the environment leave more offspring
mechanism of evolution inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive in a particular environment all species have natural variations between individuals group of organisms of the same species living in the same area at the same time more individuals are born than can survive individuals with the highest fitness leave the most offspring reproductive success Darwin witnesses the shifting of the earth caused by an earthquake evidence
for
evolution artificial
selection homologous
structures vestigial
structures fossil
record living
examples DNA &
molecular
evidence breeding of domestic
plants and animals for
traits humans value same ancestor structures with similar
characteristics due to descent
from a common ancestor the same bones are present, but they have different proportions in different species remnants of structures no longer necessary for survival chronological collection of
remains in rock layers
deposited over time How Fossils Form:
wet, swampy conditions
sediment deposits
undisturbed for long periods
fossils will not form in all areas all the time Problems with the Fossil Record:
formation is rare
long periods in between formation
only hard parts are preserved
disturbing rock destroys fossils
common species more likely to be fossilized
absence of intermediate species (many of the missing species have now been found)
Darwin noted this in The Origin of Species DNA & proteins provide clues as to how organisms are related organisms with fewer differences in a DNA sequence are more closely related
"silent" mutations are especially useful differences in the amino acid sequences of proteins are also useful antibiotic resistance of bacteria
ring species occurs when antibiotics no longer affect bacteria
stopping antibiotics early
those with high resistance survive & reproduce
"superbugs" are created
ALWAYS finish antibiotics!!!!!!! species that are currently undergoing speciation
neighboring populations can interbreed, but those at either end of the spectrum cannot So then what is a species? Biological species concept
individuals that breed in nature and produce fertile offspring microevolution
small changes within a species
the neighboring populations in ring species
macroevolution
one species evolving into another
speciation Why aren't all species evolving?
there needs to be selective pressure (predation, environmental change, etc.)
punctuated equilibrium - rapid evolution followed by long periods with little change
evolution takes a loooooooooooong time; it could be happening but we dont' notice How Evolution Occurs isolation a barrier that prevents populations from breeding with each other Forms of isolation:
geographic
reproductive Physical barrier
ocean
river
mountain
valley
desert prevents gene flow between populations
genetic drift occurs when a small population is isolated continental drift Continental drift affected the evolution of flightless birds common ancestor lived here adaptive radiation prevents populations from recognizing each pther as potential mates
physical: anatomically incompatible
behavioral: prefer different songs or mating dance
mating on different time schedules selective pressure anything that causes an adaptation to be selected for or against Common pressures:
predators
climate change
change in food availability
competition with other species
competition within a species other evolutionary occurrences coevolution:
two species that evolve together
host/parasite
predator/prey convergent evolution:
two species that resemble each other due to similar environments taxonomy: naming and classifying organisms according to evolutionary relationships binomial: a 2-part name for a species
ex: Homo sapiens tails are analogous structures Essential Question: In what ways do natural selection and artificial selection differ and compare?
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