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Transcript of PROJECT WORK
Economic aspect of additive manufactoring
The potential of 3d printing in the market for the near future
"Economic aspect of the technology"
Number of limiting factors
Benefits of additive manufacturing
3D print parts in space station
World's first 3D printed building,
will arrive in 2014
Want a 3D clothing printer
Additive manufacturing costs
a process for making a physical object from a three-dimensional digital model, typically by laying down many successive thin layers of a material.
Ability to combine materials
Benefits of 3D Printing
Benefict of additive manufactory
How it will evolve in near future
The potential today and tomorrow
Impact on business
AM is able to very effectively create complex product geometry and component shapes
AM is capable of producing multiple parts in its build volume at the same time
AM is able to concentrate value creation into a single production
Reduction of energy consumption
Length of production chain of AM compared to other processes
• limited material suitability
• diminished process productivity
• problems with dimensional accuracy
• poor surface finish
• repeatability issues
• uncompetitive production cost at medium and large volumes
Diffusion of Additive Manufacturing
The diffusion of new technologies or innovations tends to follow certain trends and the process is studied in several disciplines: economics, communications, sociology, and marketing.
Distribution of benefits
Diffusion of AM technology
Forecast AM shipments market saturation level
Diffusion and opportunity due to "change agent"
Impact on organizational innovation
Supply chain demateralisation
• Just-in-time delivery
• Increased manufacturing flexibility
• Elimination of waste
Manufacturing processes and manufacturing parts are becoming more and more complex. Additive manufacturing both reduces and adds to the complexity of this process. There are a number of pros and cons involved with additive manufacturing
Pro and cons of AM process
Cost of using 3D printing to produce a product
Production volumes versus costs: Traditional manufacturing versus 3D printing
What does a 3D printed bunny cost?
Complementary to conventional
-Saves up to 90% use of raw material (The Economist, 2011).
-Low Carbon Footprint
-'Pulled' by end customer demand.
-Short lead time.
-Lower fixed costs for producers.
-Growth in the market and increased competition.
-Falling prices from both producer and consumer perspective.
Structural change in the
-Lowers cost of entry into any industry
Provide low barriers to entry for
Inevitable innate desire for humankind to move forward
According to estimates, the global 3DP printer market is poised to hit $6 billion by 2017 from $2.2 billion in 2012, with global shipments of printers costing less than $100,000 expected to reach about 98,000 in 2014, roughly twice as many as in 2013
PwC surveyed over 100 industrial manufacturers within the US, from small contract manufacturers to multinationals
How is your company currently using 3DP technology?
Since the mid-1980s, 3D printing has changed drastically. As the Consumer Electronics Association noted, “Sales of 3D printers will approach $5 billion in 2017, up from $1.7 billion in 2011, as demand expands for everything from consumer applications to markets such as automotive,
The 3D printing industry is expected to change nearly every industry it touches, completely
the traditional manufacturing process
Additive market size $ Bil (actual and forecast)
The distribution of AM applications within different sectors
Industry life cycle
Source: Diffusion of Innovations, Fourth Edition, (New York: The Free Press.
Model of technology diffusion by Mansfield
𝑝(𝑡) = the proportion of potential users who have adopted the new technology by time t
𝛼 = Location parameter
𝛽 = Shape parameter (𝛽>0)
Forecasts of U.S. Additive Manufacturing Shipments by Varying Market Potential
Cumulative additive manufacturing machines, installed by country, 1988-2011, (percent of global total)
The United States has several advantages in manufacturing in general, and in additive manufacturing in particular. For example, U.S. R&D spending for total manufacturing in 2011 was $415.0 billion, the highest among the countries for which Structural Analysis (STAN) data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development are available.31 Additionally, the technology was predominantly developed in the United States, where several leading producers of additive manufacturing machines, including Stratasys and 3D Systems, are based. In 2011, the United States accounted for 38.3 percent of the cumulative installed industrial additive manufactoring system.
AM Machine diffusion by country
More flexible development
Freedom of design and construction
Integration of functions
Fewer production tools necessary
Less spare parts in stock
Less complexity (fewer parts to manage)
Fewer tools needed
High machine and material costs
High calibration effort
Parts often require reworking
Building time depends on part height
The research of metal parts confirms that machine and material costs are a major cost driver for this technology as seen in Figure , which presents data for a sample part made of stainless steel
Cost Distribution of AM of Metal Parts by varying Factors