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The World in 1750- Unit 1
Transcript of The World in 1750- Unit 1
What is ABSOLUTISM?
King or Queen who holds absolute power by controlling ALL aspects of their society
The Monarch was chosen by God to represent him on Earth
What techniques did Monarchs use
to gain ABSOLUTE power?
- Military Conquests (to expand their Empire)
- Spending lots of $$
- Increasing the power of the central Gov.
Spanish Empire Under Philip II (1554-1598)
The Reign of Philip II
Investigated possible heretics who did not convincingly support Christianity
Campaign that drove Muslims out of Spain
KING LOUIS XVI=
Most Notable Domestic Contributions:
Global Commercial Activity:
The Reign of Louis XIV of France
- Nickname: "The Sun King"; he was VERY grandiose
- HUGE patron of the arts: created academics within science and the arts
ABSOLUTE RULERS OF RUSSIA
Ivan the Terrible
- Russia's first "CZAR"- means Caesar
-After his wife's death, he had thousands of Russian
nobles (boyars) killed, whom he thought were traitors
Peter the Great
- Ended Feudalism in Russia
- "GRAND EMBASSY": he went incognito to western Europe to learn customs & techniques
- "Westernization": Russia became like Western Europe (increased the status of women, copied western fashions)
- Expanded the size of Russia to gain a warm water port. St. Petersburg was established to make travel to Europe easier
Great Britain = A "Twist" on the Monarchy
Constitutional (Limited) Monarchy-
A form of democracy where a monarch's power is limited by a parliament and/or a Constitution
1625: Charles believed in the "Divine Right" of Kings. He continually acted without Parliamentary approval...
- Appointed himself "Supreme Head of Church"
-Executed people without a trial
- Used $$ on personal luxuries that used to go to the church.
Leader of the Roundheads
(those who opposed Charles) led a successful charge to depose and execute Charles I.
THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR
Keeping Absolutism OUT of England...
Restoration of a king (William) who was supported by Parliament, shortly after the chaos of the English Civil War (1688-1689). The "English Bill of Rights" was then added to the Magna Carta
Name of the elected body of people who kept the King's power in check
What is your impression of
Now read the following page about Louis XIV, and use all the info you have learned to respond the the questions that follow.
Russia and PETER THE GREAT
Use ABSOLUTE power to enforce 'western' ways, build alliances, and expand into Europe!
How Peter "Westernized" Russia:
EURASIAN POWER HOUSES!
How are absolutists & autocrats different? The same?
- King or Queen
- power is 'centralized and complete
- A "European" thing
- one ruler; can refer to many types of gov.
- power is centralized and complete
- An "Asian" thing at this time
Created a vast colonial empire, and was considered the
strongest monarch in Europe during his time.
The emperor was chosen by God
to rule and represent him on Earth
How Power was Achieved:
Military Conquests (land=power)
Increased economic power
Limiting the power of others (nobles, daimyo, etc.)
Suleiman the Magnificent
- St. Basil's Cathedral
- Men had to cut beards
- German clothes were worn
- "Table of Ranks"- allowed for social mobility; jobs
were given for ABILITY, not birth
limited the power of the King
; included a Parliament
Use of Political Power: Ottoman "Golden Age"-
- Equality with laws and taxes.
- Culturally diffused the Arts, Religion, and Philosophy.
- Beautiful Architecture and increased public works
- Conquered vast land for the O.E.
- Expanded Eastern Mediterranean trade amongst 3 Continents!
The "LAW- Giver"
AKBAR THE GREAT
USE OF POLITICAL POWER- Tolerance
- Religious tolerance;
* He was Muslim, but married a Hindu
* Had his sons educated by Jesuits
- Gave jobs based on ABILITY, not status
- Embraced cultural imports; esp. in the arts and architecture
Global/ Commercial Activity-
- Fierce warrior; conquered land beyond Northern India
Most powerful French King of the Bourbon Dynasty
1.) Lived LAVISHLY; expanded the Palace of Versailles
2.) Limited role/power of nobles; made them live at Versailles
*"Bureaucracy": Decisions are made by appointed heads of state
3.) Reversed Policies, Like the Edict of Nantes, that allowed religious freedom
- Louis Used Canada to greatly expand the fur trade; limited imports, increased exports
-Louis got France involved in many wars, some of which France lost, putting them into debt
Loss of money = Increase in taxes!
Although the Emperor was technically at the top, the Real Power belonged to the...
Power of the TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE
*CENTRALIZE, MODERNIZE, stabilize
Complex road system with Tokyo in the Center
Local Daimyo were moved to Tokyo; suppressed possible rebellion
Global Commercial Isolation. Prevented "Western" ideas from influencing Japan
People "Accepted their place" in the rigid social order
Centralized Commercial activity; all roads connected there
Center of the arts; theater, painting, music
"The Window to Europe"
Gave Russia a warm water port, and proximately to the cool countries.
*Expanded Russia farther west= more trade, modernization
The Most Powerful Empires- 1750