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Transcript of Genocide
displaced 2,500,000 people. In September 2004 Secretary of State Collin Powell was the first U.S. Administrator to label the atrocities in Sudan a genocide. The United Nations has taken many steps
in helping those in Darfur In 2008 the United Nations created UNAMID which sole purpose is to protect civilians. On March 4, 2009 the International Criminal Court issued a warrant for the arrest of President Omar Bashir for crimes against humanity and charges of genocide.
He has yet to be put on trial. Current Situation Rwanda The mass genocide in Rwanda took place in 1994 when the Hutus began killing the Tutsi's. Over the course of 100 days 500,00 people were killed in Rwanda. The reason for the mass genocide was due to major ethnic tension and competition between the two groups Hutus and Tutsis. In 1990 the RPF Rwandan Patriotic Front invaded northern Rwanda in an attempt to defeat the Hutu led government. This sparked what was known as the Rwandan civil war between the Hutu regime and the RPF. This escalated ethic tensions in the country. The mass killings began when Juvenal Habyarimana the President of Rwanda at the time and heavy supporter of the Hutu group was assassinated. The genocide was supported and coordinated by the national government as well as local military officials, civil officials, and mass media. A man named Paul Rusesabagina hid and protected 1,268 refugees during the Rwandan genocide. Aftermath Things have gotten better in Rwanda and people have begun to return from relocation camps The economy has picked up and education has become a key so that history does not repeat itself. Still however, Tutsi students still fear Hutu students Along with the military two groups known as the Interahamwe and the impuzamugambi hold primary responsibility for the mass genocide. The genocide could have been stopped if the United States or the UN came in and intervened. Although it has been ten years since the start of the war, civilians are still in danger.
Even with the presence of the United Nations the human rights of the people in Sudan are still being violated.
The Sudan government have prevented relief agencies from gaining access to the thousands of displaced people who still need help.
North and Sudan split. Ethical Questions Why do countries resort to genocide? Do they?
Why are other countries hesitant to help countries that face genocide?
How does genocide affect every aspect of our world?
How can a nation prevent/stop genocide during the course of its eight stages?
Why is genocide an ongoing issue? Eight Stages of Genocide Stage 1: Classification separation of "us and them" by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality
there are preventive measures--developing institutions that transcend ethnic or racial divisions; promoting tolerance and understanding, and a common language
example: Before the Holocaust occurred, Hitler sorted out the Jews from the rest of the people living in the country Stage 2: Symbolization a name or symbol is given to the classifications
people distinguished by color and/or dress
example: the yellow star of David Stage 3: Dehumanization one group denies the humanity of another group
equated with animals, vermin, insects, and diseases
hate propaganda is used • Usually organized by the state or a terrorist group
• Trained and armed army units or militias
• Plans are made for genocide killings How has the international political system responded to genocide?
-The international political system has not clearly developed the international institutions needed to prevent and predict genocide.
-The U.N. Security Council and key governments need strong, independent Early Warning systems that can predict ethnic conflict and genocide, and can present policy options on prevention and intervention to the political forces involved.
-There is not a single person at the United Nations who is responsible for genocide early warning and prevention. Some have advocated for the creation of a genocide prevention focal point at the United Nations.
-We must also build institutions to intervene non-violently before genocide begins -The international political system led by the United Nations has responded to genocide by declaring genocide a crime and by advising all participating countries to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and in peacetime. What aspects of the international political system slow international responses to genocide? -In particular, the United Nations General Assembly held on December 9, 1948 adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide as what is known as General Assembly Resolution 260. The number of states that have ratified the convention is currently 142 Cambodia - Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, overthrew Khmer Republic in 1975
- Under Plot's rule, the Khmer Rouge embarked on a ruthless, extremist program in order to reconstruct Cambodia under the model of Mao's China
- these new policies led to years of racism and genocide any opposition would be "exterminated" ("potential opposition” included, but was not limited to, intellectuals, educated people, professionals, monks, religious enthusiasts, Buddhists, Muslims, Christians, ethnic Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, and Cambodians with Chinese, Vietnamese or Thai ancestry) Genocide by Fiona, Sam, Erik, Diego, and Ikaika Stage 4: Organization - Cambodia’s elderly, handicapped, ill, and children suffered enormous casualties for their inability to perform unceasing physical labor on a daily basis.
- Every Cambodian was forced out of their homes and villages including ill, disabled, and children. Therefore many died during the journey to these camps or were killed on spot. By 1978, nearly 2 million Cambodians were dead or either murdered during Plot's move towards Communism - those who survived became unpaid laborers and were forced to live in public communes
- As a result, the economy failed and many professionals, engineers, technicians and planners who could potentially reorganize Cambodia had been killed in the genocide, and the Rouge continued where an additional 14,000 died between 1978-89 Today, Cambodia’s main industries are fabrics and tourism; foreign visitors to Cambodia surpassed 1.7 million in 2006. However, the BBC reports that corruption remains a serious issue in Cambodian politics and international aid from the U.S. and other countries is often overlooked Stage 5: Polarization -extremists and hate groups drive the ethnic group apart through propaganda. laws forbidding intermarriage and social interaction may be place. Stage 6: Preparation/Identification -Victims are identified through there own ethnicity Stage 7: Extermination -Is the beginning and the escalation of the mass killing known as genocide Stage 8: Denial -Perpetrators deny their crimes -after the events of the Holocaust, the UN met in the late 1940s to discuss the issue of genocide
-adopted on December 9, 1948
-signatures of 41 countries UN Convention on Genocide ...any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
— Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Article 2 Rwanda Mass genocide of the Tutsis by the hutus that took place in 1994 lasted 100 days and over 500,000 people were killed The Rwandan genocide was caused by a culmination of ethnic competition
and tensions between the Hutu and Tutsi people. The genocide was planned by a Hutu power group known as the Akazu
The genocide was supported and coordinated by the national government,
local military, media, and civil officials The Rwandan Patriotic Front and the Hutu regime had been In a civil war
together since 1990
The PPF restarted their attacks when the genocide broke out since it broke
the peace treaty and eventually defeated the Hutu regime and overtook the
country. Paul Rusesabagina a Rwandan hotel manager sheltered and protected 1,268
refugees during the Genocide.
He used his connections and influence to keep Tutsis from being killed by the
Interahamwe. Aftermath The US, Britain, and the UN could have done something to stop this tragedy before it happened but choose not to Rwanda is still recovering from the Genocide, as HIV and Aids plague the country Education is becoming the key in Rwanda so something like what they witnessed will not happen again President Kagame has done a great job by stimulating the government and is sending it on its way Ethnic hatred still occurs in schools mostly because of their parents.
Tutsi children still fear Hutu children. The End Throughout history we have seen the United States not take action or take
action too late when times of genocide have occurred. This has partly to do with
our unwillingness to intervene in a situation that doesn't have to do with our
country because it will therefore make it our problem. This has made it difcult
because we want to help being a country that makes human rights and
fundamental freedom a top priority How has the political climate in the United States made interventions to stop genocide a diffcult policy for US presidents? They haven't that is why genocides continue to keep reoccurring the worlds
leaders do not have the political will to stop genocide as well as the fact that the
world has not developed the international institutions needed to predict it. How has the international political system responded to genocide? Location of the United Nations Definition Any national, ethnical, racial or religious group that has been disintegrated of there political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of these individuals belonging to these groups. -The key principles involved from the catholic social teaching are human dignity, the common good, rights and responsibilities,and promotion of peace. All these principles involve protecting human dignity.
-Human life is sacred, and the dignity of the human person is the starting point for a moral vision for society.
-If we want peace we must first have justice Catholic Social Teaching: Genocide