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A2 Psychology - Relationships lesson 8
Transcript of A2 Psychology - Relationships lesson 8
Relationships Influence of childhood experiences on adult relationships Lesson Objective: To assess how and why childhood experiences effect our relationships in adulthood Bowlby (1982) Individuals develop an internal working model of the self in relation to the primary attachment figure which is usually the mother. Based on childhood experience, the internal working model of attachment contains information about how a person expects a partner to behave in terms of reliability, availability and emotional expectations. Early childhood experiences also dictate how disappointment and emotional discomfort are handled as early attachment styles are reflected in adult relationships
(secure & insecure) Hazan & Shaver (1987) Produced a 'love quiz' to assess the link between attachment theory and successful intimate relationships. The questions were based on early experiences and current experiences. They found that people who were securely attached as a child tended to have happy, long lasting relationships. On the other hand, insecure types found adult relationships more difficult, were more likely to become divorced and felt that true love was rare. Feeney et al (1994) Found that security of attachment transferred to a greater level of interpersonal interaction and relationship satisfaction! Feeney also concluded that anxiety caused by attachment issues is the leading cause of destructive behaviour within relationships. The more anxious you are in a relationship, the less satisfied you are. Interactions with Peers Early relationships with peers is important in forming attitudes towards adult relationships. Children learn about themselves as a result of interacting with others. What we learn from these interactions is internalised as expectations about what we expect from others. We learn self worth through popularity, how well we get on with others as well as expected behaviour in regards to a close friendships such as trust, confiding and understanding. Attachment disorders Reactive attachment disorder is caused by the lack of development in a child's social skills as a result of either child abuse or frequent caregivers such as children in homes or foster care. RAD is particularly severe if the child has been removed from their parents during the 1st weeks of life. Children who have RAD will either engage in indiscriminate relationships with anyone and everyone, or they will completely mistrust or devoid emotion towards everyone Adolescent attachments Relationships with parents Adolescents are aware of other relationships in terms of differences and similarities as apposed to children who typically view their own parent-child relationship. Secure adolescent-parent relationships allows people to have the confidence to explore relationships outside the family ie: with other adolescents. Social Learning Theory Adolescents will observe levels of intimacy from their parents by observing how they relate to one another. Post-divorce relationships Mother-daughter relationships Allegiances will form between mother and daughter usually through negativity towards the father. Daughters may become 'parentified' as they become emotional carers for their mothers which impacts on their attitudes in adulthood towards relationships and men. Father-son relationships Post-divorce father-son relationships in adolescent boys have been linked with the strength of future adult relationships. The better the relationship in terms of trust and affection, the greater the satisfaction in adult relationships. Sons too are socialised by their fathers in terms of negativity towards women and the value of relationships. Adolescents and peers The relationship between peers in adolescence provides a different type of relationship than that of the parent-adolescent Draw a table with the headings 'parents' and 'peers' and list the different aspects we learn form interacting with each group in terms of relationships How would you evaluate adolescent attachment in relation to adult relationships?