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Daneca Cacho

on 16 October 2014

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What is activity-based teaching?
A constructivist teaching approach
A hands –on, creative, participative method of teaching
Teaching should be constructive and self
Motivated to learn
It should engage learners who are actively and naturally curious
and likes to explore their environment
Teacher should create an environment that is
conducive for gaining knowledge

Features and Advantages
Learning happens through activities
Learning becomes fun, an enjoyable process
Learning is contextual, so, easy to grasp and meaningful
Classroom activities are more student-centric
The retention of knowledge thus gained is permanent.
Bringing subjects down to the level of students’experience makes understanding easier
Inviting active participation helps students open up.
They can freely try out the concepts they have learned.

Students are not confined to their seats and classrooms
Free exchange of ideas
Children are self- motivated to know, to learn
Teacher as a facilitator or guide, not an authoritarian
Students have freedom to move around. No student likes to be tied down to his bench.
Class rooms become a lively, interesting place.
Through pair-work, group-work, whole class discussions students are exposed to a variety of view points and perspectives.
The guided discovery approach leads students to a clearer understanding of the forms and underlying concepts

Cooperative Leaning
Small groups of learners -> work together toward achieving shared learning goal.
Learners are aware that they are responsible not only for their own learning but also for that of the others in the group.

Types of Cooperative Learning
Formal Cooperative Learning Group
Done in traditional class/ distance learning group
Individual or group accountability
Most useful in group setting
Informal Cooperative Learning Group
Can be used in any setting
Helps the members to understand and clarify misconceptions as well as to share experiences

3. Base Cooperative Learning Group
Surveys/ focus groups
Applied easily to new staff orientation or preceptor programs

Advantages of Cooperative Learning Group
Promotes critical thinking
Enhances social skill
Helps address learning skills and learning styles
Members learn to function as a team

Controlled representation s of reality
Exercises that learners engage in to learn in the real world.

De Martin

Purpose and Uses of Simulations
Enhances skills
Enhances interaction abilities
Helps student learn psychomotor skills in a safe and controlled setting
Chance to apply theories and principles in practice
Achieves learning objectives- communication skills
Ensures attitudinal change
helps discover factors affecting people and situations
helps in mastery of skills
helps evaluate learning
Role of Educator in Simulation Learning
1. Planner
– read carefully, assign reading

– introduce activity, moderator
3. Debriefer
– summarize what happened, let leaners
explain what they did and why, point out theories and
principles applied

Types of Simulations
1. Simulation Exercise
Focuses on process learning
Ex. Earthquake drills, fire drills
2. Simulation Games
Focuses on content/ process learning

Types of Simulation Games
A. Content Learning
Focuses on teaching/ reinforcing factual information
Ex. Crosswords, word games, sodoku
B. Process Learning
Emphasizes problem solving and application of information

Advantages of Simulation - Games
Teaches facts & application of information
Stimulates learning- makes learning fun
Helps to evaluate learning
Increases interaction among learners

Disadvantages of Simulations -Games
Waste of time
Teachers dislike competition which games promote

Types of Simulation Games
C. Role Playing
Form of drama – spontaneous acting out of roles (interaction)
Lasts for 3 to 5 (illustrates one aspect of human relationship)
Expression of non-verbal and verbal behavior, response patterns and implementation of principles

D. Case Study
An analysis of an incident or situation or situation on which characteristics and relationships are described, factual or hypothetical events transpire, and problems need to resolved or solved.

Problem Based Learning
Involves confronting students with real life situations
Points in PBL
SMALL GROUPS -> Analyze the case
Identify their own needs for information
Solve problems
Students will become GOOD PROBLEM SOLVERS in their future work
Students will become LIFE LONG LEARNERS

Self-Learning Modules
Also known as:
Self-directed learning modules
Self-paced learning modules
Self-learning packets
Individualized Learning activity packages

Self-Learning Modules
A self-contained unit or package of study material for use by an individual
Audience where this WORK BEST: Adult learners

Principles in Handling Adult Learners

1. Adult are self-motivated to learn. ( relevant)
2. Adult’s prior experience is a resource for further learning
3. Adults are problem focused and readily learn material they can use to solve problems.

Components of Self-Learning Modules

1. Introduction and Instructions
Topic for module- single topic
2. Behavioral Objectives
Expected of the learner
Objectives- over-all objectives/ specific
3. Pretest
PRETEST- diagnostic test / assesses prerequisite knowledge

Helps evaluate which sections of the module to skip and which ones needs to be studied in depth
4. Learning Activity
Most creative portion
Designed to help meet objectives
Must appeal to people- different learning styles
Attending short lectures, speeches, demo
Watching a video or slide
Using a computer program
5. Self-evaluation
Assesses how the students achieve the objectives
6. Posttest
A self-quiz
Retake is okay
Determines a mastery
Developing a Module
Takes time (weeks/ months)
Begin with the body ( behavioral objectives, pretest, learning activity, sel-evaluation, posttest)
Last to write introduction & instructions
PILOT TESTING – have one or two people work at the module for feedback ( e.g unclear objectives)

Advantages of Self-Learning Modules
Very flexible – do it at your own pacing, done independently
Individualized approach
Sparks interest in teaching – creativity
Reduces travel time
Reduces costs

Disadvantages of Self-Learning Modules
Misinteractions with people
May lead to further procrastination-lack of structures and deadlines
Promotes dishonesty
Takes many hours to design and test

The teacher’s role
is to set tasks that help students arrive at an understanding of the concepts, make learning challenging and motivating by selecting appropriate material, decide teaching tools, design activities, prompt and ask questions that make learning challenging and motivating.
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