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Lesson 5 Readings in Sociology

Learning Sociology by Dr. Clarence M. Batan for SCL101 Introduction to Sociology: Society and Culture

Debbie Manalili

on 26 June 2013

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Transcript of Lesson 5 Readings in Sociology

Learning Sociology
Dr. Clarence M. Batan
SCL.1: Introduction to Sociology:
Society & Culture

Basic Question of the Course
What is Sociology?
macrosociology vs. microsociology
Sociological Imagination
The sociological imagination is the ability to discern the relationship between large-scale social forces and the actions of individuals. It includes both the capacity to see relationships between individual biographies and historical change, and the capacity to see how social causation operates in societies.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociological_imagination
The term 'sociological imagination' was coined by the American sociologist C. Wright Mills in 1959 to describe the type of insight offered by the discipline of sociology. The term is used in introductory textbooks in sociology to explain the nature of sociology and its relevance in daily life.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociological_imagination
Sociological Perspective
“Seeing particular in the general, seeing the strange in the familiar”
– John Macionis
Is sociology a science?
Natural science (e.g., physics, biology, chemistry, geology, etc.) versus social science (e.g., sociology, anthropology, economics, history, psychology, and political science)
What does sociology focus on?
Example issues for group discussion
Public schools
Reproductive health
Student’s lack of motivation to study
“The sociologist, then, is someone concerned with understanding society in a disciplined way. The nature of this discipline is scientific. This means that what sociologist finds and says about the social phenomena he studies occurs within a certain rather strictly defined frame of reference.
Berger (1963)
"One of the main characteristics of this frame of reference is that the operations are bound by certain rules of evidence. As a scientist, the sociologist tries to be objective, to control his personal preferences and prejudices, to perceive clearly rather than to judge normatively.
Berger (1963)
Berger (1963)
“This restraint of course, does not embrace the totality of the sociologist's existence as a human being, but is limited to his operations qua sociologist. Nor does the sociologist claim that his frame of reference is the only one within which society can be looked at.”
(Berger, 1963, pp. 16-17)
Berger (1963)
“Sociology is more like a passion. The sociological perspective is more like a demon that possesses one, that drives one compellingly, again and again, to the questions that are its own.
An introduction to sociology is, therefore, an invitation to a very special kind of passion. No passion is without its dangers. The sociologist who sells his wares should make sure that he clearly pronounces a caveat emptor quite clearly in the transaction.” (Berger, 1963, p. 24)
History and development of sociology as a discipline
How did sociology develop?
From the West (European and American development)
Comte (French revolution of 1789)
Harriet Martineau, a woman (Britain and America) – Society in America
History and development of sociology as a discipline
Herbert Spencer (English) – Charles Darwin’s – On the Origin of Species – “survival of the fittest” – “by arguing that it is ‘natural’ that people are rich while others are poor” (Schaefer and Grekul, 2007, p. 9)
“Spencer suggested that since societies are bound to change eventually¸ one need not be highly critical of present social arrangements or work actively for social change”. (Schaefer and Grekul, 2007, pp. 9-10)
History and development of sociology as a discipline
Emile Durkheim
Max Weber
Ideal type
Karl Marx
The Communist Manifesto
Class struggles
History and development of sociology as a discipline
Modern developments
Charles Horton Cooley
Looking glass-self theory
Jane Addams, female sociologist (social work emphasis)
Robert Merton (combining theory and research)
Philippine Sociology
Three points of Bautista’s (1994) paper
First, compared to the 1970s and the early 1980s, there is, in the 1990s, greater pluralism or convergence of theoretical perspectives and more common elements in the stance which sociologists have taken vis-à-vis development concerns. (page3)
Philippine Sociology
Three points of Bautista’s (1994) paper
Second, Philippine sociology in this decade is characterized by an increasingly interdisciplinary framework, a broader definition of what constitutes sociological problems, and a blurring of the distinction and hierarchy between basic and applied fields. (page 4)
Philippine Sociology
Three points of Bautista’s (1994) paper
Third, the final decade of the century highlights the imperative to mobilize sociologists to aggressively fill the gaps in our understanding of 'Philippine society, critically review existing paradigms in light of empirical realities, and incorporate disparate findings, insights and developments into more conceptual or theoretical publications which elaborate on existing models or advance alternative perspectives. (page 4)
Philippine Sociology
“It is important for teams of sociologists to include graduate and undergraduate students whose interests and commitment to their research project and the discipline can be sustained. Inclusion of these students through a system of apprenticeship will contribute immensely to the training of a new generation of sociologists.
Philippine Sociology
“Thus far, training in sociology has been confined to academic discourses involving readings, most of which are removed from Philippine realities. Actual student involvement in field-based research with mentors can provide the opportunity to translate abstractions to reality and to reconstruct abstractions.
Philippine Sociology
“For the full-fledged sociologist, direct involvement in research in conjunction with others provides an excellent training opportunity for regearing perspectives.” (Bautista, 1994, p. 17)
Philippine Sociology
In conclusion, the 1990s pose three major challenges for sociologists, especially those based in academe:
(1) to undertake solid research which will expose and physically link sociologists to actors and other social scientists in the field and enable them to help address concrete issues and problems;
Philippine Sociology
(2) to process, codify, analyze and transform experiences and empirical findings into raw materials for theoretical production; and,
(3) to translate the shifts in mental gears and the theoretical and methodological developments achieved so far into a training program which will stimulate and sustain the interest of the next generation. (Bautista, 1994, p. 17)
Southeast Asian Sociology
King (2008)
“…discusses the reasons for the relative lack of progress, or the ‘underdevelopment’ of postwar sociological study of Southeast Asia. (p. 20)
“provides a context of consideration of theories of modernization, underdevelopment and dependency, and political economy perspectives” (p. 20)
Southeast Asian Sociology
The underdevelopment of Southeast Asian Sociology
Post-war constraints on research: access & American paradigms
What is Sociological Theory?
…theories attempts to explain events, forces, materials, ideas, or behaviour in a comprehensive manner.

“Within sociology, a theory is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behaviour. An effective theory may have both explanatory and predictive power. (Schaefer and Grekul, 2007, p.7
What are the major theoretical perspectives?
Functionalist perspective
Manifest and latent functions
Conflict perspective
The Marxist view
A different voice: W.E. B. Du Bois
Feminist perspective
Interactionist perspective
What is the scientific method?
“the scientific method is a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity, and consistency in researching a problem. (Schaefer and Grekul, 2007, p. 20)
Also includes informed subjectivity (Batan)
Five Basic Steps in Scientific Method
Defining the problem
Reviewing the literature
Formulating the hypothesis
Selecting the research design, and then, collecting and analyzing data, and,
Developing conclusion
Five Basic Steps in Scientific Method
1.Defining the problem
Operational definition
2. Reviewing the Literature
Relevant scholarly studies
Five Basic Steps in Scientific Method
3. Formulationg hypothesis
Relationship between two variables(Independent and Dependent)
Causal logic
4. Selecting the research design, and then, collecting and analyzing data, and,
Research design
Selecting a sample
Random sample
Validity (veracity or truthfulness of results)
Reliability (consistency of results)
5. Developing conclusion
Five Basic Steps in Scientific Method
How do Sociologists conduct research?
Research design (detailed plan in obtaining data scientifically)
Quantitative research
Qualitative research
Schaefer and Grekul, 2007, p. 26
What is Scientific Method?
Schaefer and Grekul, 2007, p. 21
How do sociologists conduct research?
Schaefer and Grekul, 2007, p. 30
How do sociologists conduct research?
Code of ethics (Canada)
Respect human dignity
Respect free and informed consent
Respect vulnerable persons
Respect privacy and confidentiality
Respect justice and inclusiveness
Balance harm and benefits
Minimize harm
Schaefer and Grekul, 2007
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