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Transgressing Gender? F13

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by

Julie Jenkins

on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Transgressing Gender? F13

Transgressing Gender?
Reggae & Soundsystem
--dominated by men
Women find space as "Donnettes" or Dancehall Queens
Sterling argues:
--provides a safe space for Japanese women to perform their sexuality and challenged ideas about what is appropriate behavior for women
What is the difference between sex & gender?
Sex- biological differences (X/Y chromosomes, hormones, secondary sexual characteristics)

Gender- culturally & historically constructed norms, values, & behaviors considered appropriate for each sex.
---not necessarily biologically DETERMINED. RELATED, but NOT DETERMINED.
---“raw material” that we build different ideas, beliefs, meanings, and roles around
---Construction of Reality
Socialized into our gender roles
--expectations on how we should to behave, should wear, what we should like
Different ways of being a gendered person
--multiples masculinities/femininities
"Not doing things according to standard" (Kana, Dear Chicks)

"start a revolution"
Women marginalized in Japanese economy
--Not an expectation to be financially independent
--Expectation of quitting job to become wives/mothers
--many step outside norms (expectations)
--become subjects of moralizing scrutiny
moralizing scrutiny strongest when women become overtly sexual

scrutiny doubles as desire
-feel unfairly judged
--feel like dance is empowering
--provides safe space for sexual expression outside the control of men
does it have the potential to affect social change?
--is this a sign of women controlling their sexuality outside the control of men, or are they objectified in a masculine subculture and mainstream society?
--expression of sexuality outside the control of men
--not about attracting sexaul partners
--but..sexually objectified by media, audience
--process of representing or treating a person like a sexual object to serve as sexual pleasure for another
women separated into two groups
--non-sexualized (mothers, wives, daughters)
--sexualized (prostitutes)
non-sexualized women not expected to express sexual autonomy
--sex is "done to" women as passive participants
in this wider context--
dancers perceived as 'transgressing' norms
--but to dancers:
-sign of being powerful
-dismiss fear of stigma
--classify body and sex characteristics
--ascribe ideas about appropriate behavior, symbols, values
--varies cross-culturally
--gender does not correspond to physical characteristics
Third Genders
--distinct from feminine/masculine gender roles
--understanding that physical differences are unfixed
--physical insufficient to establish gender
Berdache
--Biological male- taking on a non-masculine gender identity (domestic tasks)
--Biological female- taking on a non-feminine gender identity (hunting, warfare)
---spiritual power
---have marriage relationships with masculine gendered men
Fa' afafine - Somoa
--biologically male
--embody both feminine/masculine

--both misunderstood as 'transgender'
--but third gender category
Masculinity & sexuality in Nicaragua
--defined as active, violent, dominant
--dominate women & other men
--plurality in sexual practices accepted as long as in dominant position

Japan
--variety of gender identities & sexual practices in past
--marginalised during early 20th century

--Men stigmatised from embodying femininity
--motherhood and non-sexualised woman promoted

homosexuality tolerated, but not discussed seriously
How does Sterling explain the strong homophobia in the dancehall sub-culture?
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