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ASD and Inclusion

A Personal and Professional Perspective

Aaron Ragan

on 11 April 2013

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Transcript of ASD and Inclusion

A Personal and Professional Perspective ASD and Inclusion Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication, learning and social skills.
Autism in particular: Affects communication, forming relationships, and appropriately responding to the environment.
Causes: Unknown, believed to be abnormalities affecting brain development
Is a subject of complex nature Inclusion “Education must be viewed as a facilitator in everyone’s human development and functionality, regardless of barriers of any kind, physical or otherwise. Therefore, disability of any kind (physical, social and/or emotional) cannot be a disqualifier. Inclusion, thus, involves adopting a broad vision of Education for All by addressing the spectrum of needs of all learners, including those who are vulnerable to marginalization and exclusion.” (Guidelines for Inclusion: Ensuring Access to Education for All. UNESCO 2005)

For the purpose of the Canadian Association for Community Living’s National Summit on Inclusive Education November 2004, inclusive education was defined as arrangements that ensure that teachers have the instructional and other supports to:
Welcome and include all learners, in all of their diversity and exceptionalities, in the regular classroom, in the neighborhood school with their age peers
Foster the participation and fullest possible development of all learners’ human potential;
and foster the participation of all learners in socially valuing relationships with diverse peers and adults. Objective: To better understand the contemporary issue of ASD and inclusion from both a professional and personal perspective. Brief History Of ASD in the Classroom Social Environment
Biological 1943
1960 Parenting styles
Leo Kanner
Dr. Bernard Rimland Autism Society of America 1975 1982 <1940 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Status within Alberta Multiple regional authorities
Some of the programs in use in Alberta:
The Family Support for Children with Disabilities
Children and Youth with Special and Complex Needs
Kindergarten to Grade 12 - Special Needs program
Inclusive Child Care Program
The Developmental Aide and Child Care program Issue of Inclusion
in the Classroom Students with disabilities don’t benefit from inclusion This lack of benefit becomes more apparent over time Negatively impacts the classroom as a whole Lack of understanding History of Treatment Psychoanalysis of parents
Psychotropic drugs
Electroshock History of inclusion and ASD in the classroom Prior to the 1970s
Denied enrollment
Private schools
Introduction of the Charter By Aaron Ragan, Nicole Faber, and Kylie Mackell Difficulty in receiving Special Education Services Difficulty in finding proper Assessment Difficulty in finding local Special Education Services Employment (for each disability) for those educated in a Regular school vs. a Special school Adults with disabilities who never participate in community activities, by level of Education * Working aged people Greater potential for social exclusion Problems with Students Difficulty in building positive relationships Example: Issue with inclusion in Norway Social Isolation The teacher has a critical role Monchy, Pijl, & Zandberg, (2004); Kolster et al, (2009); and Pijl, Frostad, & Flem, (2008) Time Consuming Problems with Teachers Improper allocation of time Limited Resources Roeher, 2005 Positive External Development ABA: Applied behavioural analysis TEACCH - Treatment and Education of Autistic and related communication-handicapped Children program Dr. Ivar Lovaas
Behavioural therapy
Used to minimize unusual behaviour
Therapy is completed at home Dr. Eric Schopler
Designed by both parent and teacher; implemented both at home and at school. Ozonoff, S., Dawson, G., & McPartland, J. (2002) Method for Inclusive Education PLAN TRAIN SUPPORT MODEL NETWORK RESOURCES “Neighbourhood schools are key in larger jurisdictions so the numbers of ‘special needs’ students don’t pool into an overwhelming ‘burden’ or ‘segregated’ population.” –A participant at the Canadian Association for Community Living’s National Summit on Inclusive Education, November 2004 Positives for Inclusion The Positive Educator Outlook The Positive Parental Outlook Positive Student Outlook Exposure to proper behaviour No Child Left Behind Increases teacher's sense of self-efficacy The Children's School, PS372, New York A "normal" upbringing Interaction with their peers Helps alleviate negative stigma Setting The Direction Jasper Background Kindergarten Ups and Downs At Home At School Looking to the Future Legislation Tools Alberta Education Act, 2012 Conclusion Point Counterpoint Geneva Autism Centre, 2013 Schreibman, L. (1988). and Ozonoff, S., Dawson, G., & McPartland, J. (2002) Schreibman, L. (1988). and Ozonoff, S., Dawson, G., & McPartland, J. (2002) The Education for all Handicapped Children’s Act and Autism Society of America, 1975 Kohen,Dafna, Sharanjit Uppal, Saeeda Khan, & Laura Visentin, 2010 Porter, Gordon L., 2008 Schreibman, L. (1988) Schreibman, L. (1988) Kohen,Dafna, Sharanjit Uppal, Saeeda Khan, & Laura Visentin, 2010 Kohen,Dafna, Sharanjit Uppal, Saeeda Khan, & Laura Visentin, 2010 Kohen,Dafna, Sharanjit Uppal, Saeeda Khan, & Laura Visentin, 2010 Cameron Crawford, 2005 Cameron Crawford, 2005 Porter, G (2008); and Inclusive Education in Canada – Key Issues and Directions for the Future Koster, Pijl, Nakken & Houten (2010) Monchy, Pijl, & Zandberg (2004); and Pijl, Frostad, & Flem (2008) http://education.alberta.ca/department/ipr/inclusion.aspx Increases career potential Reduces Segregation Age 6
Type Inclusive Education Planning Tool Framework (2008-2010)
Action on Inclusion
Future Initiatives In summary, the public has become more conscious towards the complexity of ASD in the past 60 years and it has taken 40 years for the public school system to embrace a proactive approach in including children with disabilities into their programs. Although inclusion might seem like an obvious pathway for some, such as Jasper and his family, it still remains a controversial topic to this day. For that reason we leave this decision up to you... A parent whose child is affected by autism is encouraged by the developments in the education system towards a more inclusive classroom:

”Having our autistic child in an average classroom with other children has been great in improving our child’s development. By having him in this class he is able to learn average behaviours from the other children in the class. He feels more included in the class and is able to participate in the class activities with the other kids.” Another parent whose child is not affected by a learning disability is not so keen on the movement towards inclusion and is vocal in opposition:

”Our child is in an inclusive class where there are children with special needs. As much as the teachers try, it is hard for them to fully include some of these children into the classroom. There seems to be many disruptions during the class time when a child does not understand something or gets frustrated and this takes up more of the teacher's time. It takes away valuable time for the other students and must be reducing the quality of their education.”
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