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Arts and Culture, 1600-1789 (Chapter 10)
Transcript of Arts and Culture, 1600-1789 (Chapter 10)
Architecture and Design: Rococo and Palladian
Baroque music is notable for its orderliness, its use of elaborate patterns, and its "heft." Common features include a strong, repetitive bass line which anchors the piece; the u use of repeating the same musical theme in a canon form (like a round, eg Row, Row Row Your Boat, as different voices enter and repeat each other) and the fugue (where different voices begin by relating each other, but enter in different keys before launching into variations on the theme.)
With its power, Baroque was an ideal music in the absolutist courts of Europe.
Roccoco and Neoclassical music: Couperin and Handel
Late baroque music gradually became lighter and more intimate, yet no less elaborate than previous forms. By the late 18th century, this gave way to Classical music, which emphsized strings and the new piano.
Other performance art
Baroque and Classical
Emphasis on orderliness and patterns
In visual arts, individalism balanced with classic themes and poses
In music, emphasis on variations upon one unifying theme
As time went on, Baroque became simpler. Lightness, the outdoors, and rustic life became popular themes in paitning and dance
Opera and theatre are formalized; they are not supposed to be realistic, but rather impressive, elegant, and clever.
The outside of a late Baroque church in Rome,
c. 1735 Church of La Maddelena
Interior of Chiesa di Sant'Ignazio di Loyola, 1630s
Hall of Mirrrors from Louis XIV's Palace of Versailles. Notice how this building reflects the king's power in much the same way the church is supposed to reflect God's power.
The library of the Ottobeuren Monastery, Germany Rococo interior
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia. Rococo design.
Houghton Hall, England. Palladian design
The calling of St. Matthew, Caravaggio. Example of chiaroscuro, strong contrasts with light and dark.
Artemesia Gentileschi. Self-portrait as a lute player. Again, note use of contrast and attention to indviduality
Rembrandt van Rijn. The anatomy lesson. Here Rembrandt captures
not only Dr. Tulp, physician performing the anatomy, but of the indivdual surgeons intently observing. Only one public dissection a year was given in Amsterdam. Note the attention to individuality; we could easily recognize each man.
Peter Paul Rubens, The Three Graces, 1636. These are the beautiful Graces, of classical myth, but Rubens uses very real humans as his models. These women typify the body type called 'Rubenesque.'
Anthony van Dyck, the Five Eldest Children of Charles I. Van Dyck was the court painter for King Charles I of England. His paintings mix in the traditional symbolism and poses with attention to the invidualism and personality of his subjects. Here, the future Charles II is at center, leaning on a mastiff, denoting power and protection. Yet it's a very real dog--a Stuart pet. To the right, the baby Princess Anne is also very much a real baby. At her feet is one of the spaniels (King Charles Spaniels) her family was known to dote upon.
Thomas Gainsborough, William Poyntz of Migdham and his dog, Amber. Gainsborough painted in the rococo style, and is know for his portraits and his prefrence for landscapes in the background. Here he captures Poyntz, rising member of the gentry class. The outdoors was a favourite theme for rococo paintings. Poyntz's gentry status is suggested by his hunting dog and weapon, since only the gentry and aristocracy were free to hunt with few restrictions.
Nicholas Lancret, Picnic After The Hunt, c. 1735. Lancret also portrays a hunting scene, but his reflects the far more aristocratic nature of the hunt as found in 18th century France. As with most French rococo, the painting is full of light, and has an airy feel. There is an intentional attempt to pose the subjects gracefully in a way that is elegant and pleasing.
Pachelbel's Canon in G Major. This familiar theme introduces a strong bass voice (the lowest part) which remains the same throughout the piece-- basso continuo.
The higher voices come in as a round--repeating the same melody one after another. This version is played on baroque instruments.
Lully, Fanfare for the Royal Carrousel. Lully was the director of court music for Louis XIV, composing many ballets, operas and other peices for the king's entertainment. Fanfares might be written for special occasiona to accompany the entrance of the king or other royals.
J.S. Bach, Fugue in G minor. Here you can hear the fugue pattern, as the same theme is repeated, but in different keys. Then the variations begin.
Francois Couperin, Barricades Mystérieuses. Rococo. This is played on a harpsichord, the predecessor to the piano. Unlike the piano, the strings are plucked rather than hammered, and no volume changes are possible. It was a very popular instrument in the late Baroque/Rococo period. Although often played slowly in modern arrangements, this faster arrangement would have been how this as performed in c.1720 when Couperin published it.
Franz Joseph Haydn, Piano Concerto in F, III. Classical. In this arrangement, using favored instruments of the time, you can hear the volume changes possible with the piano that were not possible on the harpsichord, as well as the string accompaniment. This performance is in a space with natural acoustics something like those of Haydn's time, giving you a sense of how such a piece might have sounded.
Ballet was a popular dance form in the 17th century, particularly at the court of Louis XIV. This brief passage gives you a sense of the costumes and movements of a baroque ballet. Many of the familiar movements from modern ballet are missing, such as dancing on point. The upper body is help upright throughout, with an emphasis on precise, orderly motions that show control and elegance.
Purcell, "Dido's Lament" from Dido and Aeneas. Opera not only included ballet, it showcased the voices of singers. This brief scene portrays the death by suicide of the Carthaginain Queen Dido after her lover Aeneas sails off the Rome. The simple lyrics __"When I am laid in earth, may my wrongs create no trouble in thy breast. Remember me! But ah, forget my fate." are repeated. This scene is in the style of the period--note that although Dido is a figure fromt he ancient world, she and her maids are costumed as contemporary 17th century figures. This was typical in all theatrical productions of the day.
Dance was also an important part of elite life, whether among royalty or in smaller gentry houses. Many of the most popular dances, such as the allemande , minuet and gigue, had their origins as folk dances among commoners. This couple above are dancing an allemande; if we imagine their clothing rougher, their dance moves less refined, and the music played on fiddles and whistles, we can see the dance's humbler origins. It looks very different when performed by a genteel couple on a ballroom floor.